Trending Topic Research File: Education Technology and Online Learning
Trending Topic Research File: Education Technology and Online Learning
Education Technology and Online Learning

Trending Topic Research File

Educators and policymakers have long been interested in finding ways to use advances in technology to support and improve student learning. The benefits and downsides of online learning, e-books, virtual reality, video, and other forms of education technology are increasingly being examined by researchers.

The following compendium of open-access articles are inclusive of all substantive AERA journal content regarding education technology and online learning published since 2002. This page will be updated as new articles are published. 

AERA Journal Articles

Note: Articles are listed below in reverse chronological order of publication. 

Webinars for English Language Teachers During the Pandemic: Global Perspectives on Transitioning to Remote Online Teaching
Joan Kang Shin, Jered Borup, Michael K. Barbour, Rocio V. Quiroga Vales quez
AERA Open, April 2022
Researchers found that the main challenges teachers reported facing were keeping their students engaged and progressing in the learning activities; unequal student access to technology and the internet; and learning and troubleshooting technology. At the same time, learning new technology and online resources was also what teachers most frequently reported enjoying about remote teaching.

Designing Online Professional Learning to Support Educators to Teach for Equity During COVID and Black Lives Matter
Christopher J. Buttimer, Joshua Littenberg-Tobias, Justin Reich
AERA Open, January 2022
Researchers found that participants changed their equity mind-sets and self-reported equity practices, and that these changes in attitudes and behaviors persisted—and in some cases increased—on the 4-month follow-up survey.

Predictors of First-Grade Teachers’ Teaching-Related Time During COVID-19
Anna D. Johnson, Owen N. Schochet, Sherri Castle, Diane Horm, Deborah A. Phillips
AERA Open, January 2022
Researchers found that teachers with higher prepandemic job commitment devoted more overall time to pandemic-induced remote teaching.

Sorting Machines: Digital Technology and Categorical Inequality in Education
Matthew H. Rafalow, Cassidy Puckett
Educational Researcher, January 2022
Researchers show how educational institutions have long played a role in constructing the value of technologies to different ends, by constructing hierarchies of technological activity, like “vocational” and “academic” computer use, even when strikingly similar.

Broadband Access, District Policy, and Student Opportunities for Remote Learning During COVID-19 School Closures
Susan Kemper Patrick, Jason A. Grissom, S. Colby Woods, UrLeaka W. Newsome
AERA Open, December 2021
Researchers found that teachers in schools serving more economically disadvantaged students and in rural districts are less likely to report regular remote instruction, especially via providing digital resources and holding virtual classes or tutoring.

Parent and Teacher Support of Elementary Students’ Remote Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany
Catherine Guzenhauser, Susanne Enke, Verena E. Johann, Julia Karbach, Henrik Saalbach
AERA Open, December 2021
Researchers found that children’s reading and mathematics skills before the lockdown predicted parental help, and reading skills predicted parental need-oriented support with schoolwork during the lockdown.

Curating Spaces of Connection and Resisting Pandemic Isolation Through Innovative Digital Practices
Kara M. Gavin
AERA Open, December 2021
Researchers examined ways in which a diverse group of 9- and 10-year-old children resisted the isolating circumstances early in the COVID-19 pandemic through creating and repurposing digital spaces to connect with friends, classmates, and family members.

Live Instruction Predicts Engagement in K–12 Remote Learning
Stephen J. Aguilar, Hernan Galperin, Clare Baek, Eduardo Gonzalez
Educational Researcher, November 2021
Researchers found a strong correlation between live instruction and student engagement in online learning among elementary school students, with every additional hour of live instruction per week increasing the probability of reporting that students have completed all their schoolwork by 26%. 

Increasing Success in Higher Education: The Relationships of Online Course Taking With College Completion and Time-to-Degree
Christian Fischer, Rachel Baker, Qiujie Li, Gabe Avakian Orona, Mark Warschauer
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, November 2021
Researchers found that online course taking of major-required courses leads to higher likelihood of successful 4-year graduation and slightly accelerated time-to-degree. These results suggest that offering online courses may help students to more efficiently graduate college.

Remote Learning, COVID-19, and Children With Disabilities
Kate Henley Averett
AERA Open, November 2021
Researchers found that most, but not all, families struggled with remote learning, both when children’s specific needs while learning at home differed from their needs at school, and when schools failed to provide adequate accommodations and services remotely.

Online or In-Person Instruction? Factors Influencing COVID-19 Schooling Decisions Among Latinx Families in Houston, Texas
Julia Szabo
AERA Open, October 2021
Researchers found that Latinx families made schooling decisions informed by their shared school context, the needs of family networks, and community infection rates.

Multimedia Design for Learning: An Overview of Reviews With Meta-Meta-Analysis
Michael Noetel, Shantell Griffith, Oscar Delaney, Nicola Rose Harris, Taren Sanders, Philip Parker, Borja del Pozo Cruz, Chris Lonsdale
Review of Educational Research, October 2021
Researchers found 11 design principles that demonstrated significant, positive, meta-analytic effects on learning and five that significantly improved management of cognitive load.

Neuroscience Research in the Classroom: Portable Brain Technologies in Education Research
Ido Davidesco, Camillia Matuk, Dana Bevilacqua, David Poeppel, Suzanne Dikker
Educational Researcher, July 2021
Researchers evaluated the value added by portable brain technologies in education research and outlines a proposed research agenda, centered around questions related to student engagement, cognitive load, and self-regulation.

Students Attending School Remotely Suffer Socially, Emotionally, and Academically
Angela L. Duckworth, Tim Kautz, Amy Defnet, Emma Satlof-Bedrick, Sean Talamas, Benjamin Lira, Laurence Steinberg
Educational Researcher, July 2021
Researchers found that high school students who attended school remotely reported lower levels of social, emotional, and academic well-being than classmates who attended school in person.

Formative Education Online: Teaching the Whole Person During the Global COVID-19 Pandemic
Deoksoon Kim, Stanton Wortham, Katrina Borowiec, Drina Kei Yatsu, Samantha Ha, Stephanie Carroll, Lizhou Wang, Julie Kim
AERA Open, May 2021
Researchers found three teaching approaches that faculty used to achieve formative education online: empathic (centering students’ emotions), reflective (facilitating deep inquiry), and adaptive (having flexibility in meeting students’ needs).

A Remote Instructor Like Me: Student–Teacher Congruence in Online, High School Courses
Jennifer Darling-Aduana
AERA Open, May 2021
Researchers found that students belonging to marginalized groups experience positive impacts when taught by a teacher of the same race, ethnicity, and gender.

Student Learning in Online College Programs
Stephanie Riegg Cellini, Hernando Grueso
AERA Open, May 2021
Researchers found that while online students perform significantly worse than on-campus students on exit exams in private institutions, they perform better in SENA—the main public vocational institution in Colombia.

Does Online Course-Taking Increase High School Completion and Open Pathways to Postsecondary Education Opportunities?
Carolyn J. Heinrich, Jennifer Darling-Aduana
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, March 2021
Researchers found that positive associations between online course-taking, credits earned and high school graduation, and for those with limited online course-taking, small increases in college enrollment. However, they found significantly lower 4-year college enrollments and lower quality college enrollments for all online course-takers, leaving open the question of whether online course-taking will lead to long-term postsecondary education and labor market success.

Influences on User Engagement in Online Professional Learning: A Narrative Synthesis and Meta-Analysis
Jane Lee, Taren Sanders, Devan Antczak, Rhiannon Parker, Michael Noetel, Philip Parker, Chris Lonsdale
Review of Educational Research, March 2021
Researchers found that course design and employers’ provision of time to complete learning are key for engaging learners. 

Video Improves Learning in Higher Education: A Systematic Review
Michael Noetel, Shantell Griffith, Oscar Delaney, Taren Sanders, Philip Parker, Borja del Pozo Cruz, Chris Lonsdale
Review of Educational Research, February 2021
Although results may be subject to some experimental and publication biases, they suggest that videos are unlikely to be detrimental and usually improve student learning.

When Logics Collide: Implementing Technology-Enabled Personalization in the Age of Accountability
Iris Daruwala, Shani Bretas, Douglas D. Ready
Educational Researcher, September 2020
Using the adoption of a personalized, blended learning mathematics program at five U.S. schools as a case study, researchers describe how teachers, school leaders, and program staff navigated institutional pressures to improve state grade-level standardized test scores while implementing tasks and technologies designed to personalize student learning.

The Potential of Telepresence for Increasing Advanced Course Access in High Schools
Jennifer Darling-Aduana, Carolyn Heinrich
Educational Researcher, June 2020
Findings from fixed effects models indicate improved access to advanced courses and higher ACT scores among students enrolled in telepresence courses.

Teacher Coaching in a Simulated Environment
Julie Cohen, Vivian Wong, Anandita Krishnamachari, Rebekah Berlin 
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, February 2020
Researchers found that coached candidates had significant and large improvements on skills relative to those who only reflected on their teaching.

Reassessing Disparities in Online Learner Student Engagement in Higher Education
Justin Paulsen, Alexander C. McCormick
Educational Researcher, January 2020
Researchers found that some of the previous literature’s differences diminish or disappear entirely.

Screens, Apps, and Digital Books for Young Children: The Promise of Multimedia
Adriana G. Bus, Susan B. Neuman, Kathleen Roskos 
AERA Open, 2020
Researchers found how digitization changes the learning environment and adult-child interaction in particular and which digital affordances enrich digital materials and how these changes affect learning. 

Using Escribo Play Video Games to Improve Phonological Awareness, Early Reading, and Writing in Preschool
Americo N. Amorim, Lieny Jeon, Yolanda Abel, Eduardo F. Felisberto, Leopoldo N. F. Barbosa, Natália Martins Dias
Educational Researcher, 2020
The results indicate that the experimental classrooms that used the 20 games for 3 months gained 68% in their reading scores compared to control classrooms.They also gained 48% more in writing scores.

Behavioral Engagement Shifts Among At-Risk High School Students Enrolled in Online Courses
Jennifer Darling-Aduana 
AERA Open, November 2019
Students completed their online course in fewer class periods than required to complete a comparable course in a traditional, face-to-face instructional setting. At the same time, students attended, on average, three additional days of school when enrolled in an online course as when enrolled in solely face-to-face courses, indicating a potentially positive spillover effect. 

Effects of a Science of Learning Course on College Students’ Learning With a Computer
Jeffrey A. Greene, Nikki G. Lobczowski, Rebekah Freed, Brian M. Cartiff, Cynthia Demetriou, A. T. Panter
American Educational Research Journal, July 2019
Researchers found that treatment and comparison students experienced greater changes in conceptual knowledge than the control group, and we found differences in the enactment of monitoring and strategy use across conditions.

Effects of a Science of Learning Course on College Students’ Learning With a Computer
Jeffrey A. Greene, Nikki G. Lobczowski, Rebekah Freed, Brian M. Cartiff, Cynthia Demetriou, A. T. Panter
American Educational Research Journal, July 2019
Researchers found that treatment and comparison students experienced greater changes in conceptual knowledge than the control group, and we found differences in the enactment of monitoring and strategy use across conditions.

Teaching Academically Underprepared Postsecondary Students
Dolores Perin, Jodi Patrick Holschuh
Review of Research in Education, May 2019
This chapter discusses approaches to the teaching of academically underprepared postsecondary students and how teaching might be changed to improve student outcomes.

Response to Technical Comment on Rickles, Heppen, Allensworth, Sorensen, and Walters (2018)
Jordan Rickles, Jessica B. Heppen, Elaine Allensworth, Nicholas Sorensen, Kirk Walters
Educational Researcher, May 2019
Researchers discuss whether it would have been appropriate to test for nominally equivalent outcomes, given that the study was initially conceived and designed to test for significant differences, and that the conclusion of no difference was not solely based on a null hypothesis test.

An Efficacy Study of a Digital Core Curriculum for Grade 5 Mathematics
Nicole Shechtman, Jeremy Roschelle, Mingyu Feng, Corinne Singleton 
AERA Open, 2019
The main experimental finding was a null result; achievement was similar in both experimental groups. The exploratory investigations help clarify interpretation of this result.

Organizing Shared Digital Reading in Groups: Optimizing the Affordances of Text and Medium
Trude Hoel, Elise Seip
AERA Open, 2019
Researchers found that the Show strategy generates more utterances, especially about the story, as well as more time spent on dialogue.

Computerized Electronic Features Direct Children’s Attention to Print in Single- and Dual-Language e-Books
W. Quin Yow, Sridhar Priyashri
AERA Open, 2019
Children attended more to their dominant language text than the other when reading dual-language texts silently but comparably in single-language texts. 

How App Books’ Affordances Are Related to Young Children’s Reading Behaviors and Outcomes
Tanya Christ, X. Christine Wang, Ming Ming Chiu, Ekaterina Strekalova-Hughes 
AERA Open, 2019
Multivariate, mixed response analysis found that (a) when a greater number of minimum hotspots were available per page, retelling was better; and (b) availability of word hotspots was linked to better critical thinking/inference outcomes.

Educational and Fun? Parent Versus Preschooler Perceptions and Co-Use of Digital and Print Media
Gabrielle A. Strouse, Lisa A. Newland, Daniel J. Mourlam 
AERA Open, 2019
Parents reported their child enjoyed print more than digital books and predicted their child would choose a print over a digital book. Parents indicated they believed print was more educational and entertaining than digital media and were motivated to use print for children’s learning, relaxation, entertainment, and parent-child bonding. 

Digital or Print? A Comparison of Preschoolers’ Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Engagement From a Print Book and an e-Book
Stephanie M. Reich, Joanna C. Yau, Ying Xu, Tallin Muskat, Jessica Uvalle, Daniela Cannata
AERA Open, 2019
Findings suggest that e-books offer many of the same, but not all, of the educational affordance as print books. Additionally, novelty might be important in supporting comprehension.

Using a Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) to Develop an Adaptive K–2 Literacy Intervention With Personalized Print Texts and App-Based Digital Activities
James S. Kim, Catherine A. Asher, Mary Burkhauser, Laura Mesite, Diana Leyva 
AERA Open, 2019
Findings indicate that children who received either conceptually coherent texts or leveled texts performed similarly on reading comprehension posttests, while augmenting and intensifying follow-up with gamification of the app and text messages to parents improved comprehension outcomes for nonresponders.

Digital Versus Paper Reading Processes and Links to Comprehension for Middle School Students
Amanda P. Goodwin, Sun-Joo Cho, Dan Reynolds, Katherine Brady, Jorge Salas 
American Educational Research Journal, 2019
Results showed students highlighted and annotated more when reading the paper versus digital text. Also, reading on paper versus digitally was slightly supportive of reading comprehension for the longer section of text.

A Digital Early Spelling Game: The Role of Auditory and Visual Support
Adi Elimelech, Dorit Aram
AERA Open, 2019
Researchers did not find significant differences between the two groups that received support, nor did we find differences between the auditory only support compared to the no support group, except for writing the last letter. The study shows that a digital game can help preschoolers progress in their spelling skills without the support of an adult. 

A Look Inside Online Educational Settings in High School: Promise and Pitfalls for Improving Educational Opportunities and Outcomes
Carolyn J. Heinrich, Jennifer Darling-Aduana, Annalee Good, Huiping (Emily) Cheng
American Educational Research Journal, March 2019
Researchers found mostly negative associations between online course-taking and math and reading scores, with some gains in credits earned and grade point averages by upperclassmen.

Online Learning, Offline Outcomes: Online Course Taking and High School Student Performance
Cassandra M. D. Hart, Dan Berger, Brian Jacob, Susanna Loeb, Michael Hill 
AERA Open, February 2019
Researchers found that while contemporaneous outcomes are positive for virtual students in both settings, downstream outcomes vary by attempt type.

One-to-One Technology and Student Outcomes: Evidence From Mooresville’s Digital Conversion Initiative
Marie Hull, Katherine Duch
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, September 2018
Researchers found that while short-term impacts of the program were statistically insignificant, math scores improved by 0.13 standard deviations in the medium term. 

Online Credit Recovery and the Path to On-Time High School Graduation
Jordan Rickles, Jessica B. Heppen, Elaine Allensworth, Nicholas Sorensen, Kirk Walters
Educational Researcher, July 2018
Researchers found no statistically significant differences in longer term outcomes between students in the online and face-to-face courses. Implications of these null findings are discussed.

Pathways to Educational Success Among Refugees: Connecting Locally and Globally Situated Resources
Sarah Dryden-Peterson, Negin Dahya, Elizabeth Adelman
American Educational Research Journal, December 2017
This research builds on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model to consider both the locally and globally situated nature of resources across refugees’ ecosystems.

How Do We Model Learning at Scale? A Systematic Review of Research on MOOCs
Srećko Joksimović, Oleksandra Poquet, Vitomir Kovanović, Nia Dowell, Caitlin Mills, Dragan Gašević, Shane Dawson, Arthur C. Graesser, Christopher Brooks
Review of Educational Research, November 2017
Researchers identify current gaps in the research, including a lack of solid frameworks to explain learning in open online setting.

Disrupting Educational Inequalities Through Youth Digital Activism
Amy Stornaiuolo, Ebony Elizabeth Thomas
Review of Research in Education, June 2017
Researchers examine young people’s use of online tools for organizing toward social change across three lines of inquiry—young people’s cultural and political uses of participatory tools and spaces online, new forms of youth civic engagement and activism, and adult-supported programs and spaces facilitating youth activism.

Civic Participation Reimagined: Youth Interrogation and Innovation in the Multimodal Public Sphere
Nicole Mirra, Antero Garcia
Review of Research in Education, June 2017
Researchers consider the ways in which digital media has fundamentally transformed the public sphere and expanded opportunities for youth civic expression and action, as well as the ways that youth participatory action research literature offers a framework for civic education that forefronts youth experience and voice. 

Student Enrollment Patterns and Achievement in Ohio’s Online Charter Schools
June Ahn, Andrew McEachin
Educational Researcher, January 2017
Researchers found that students and families appear to self-segregate in stark ways where low-income, lower achieving White students are more likely to choose e-schools while low-income, lower achieving minority students are more likely to opt into the traditional charter school sector. 

Examining Adolescents’ Strategic Processing During Online Reading With a Question-Generating Task
Byeong-Young Cho, Lindsay Woodward, Dan Li, Wendy Barlow
American Educational Research Journal, 2017
Path analysis indicated that strategic meaning making coordinated with self-monitoring and source evaluation positively influenced the quality of the generated questions, whereas information-locating strategies alone contributed little to the participants’ question generation. 

Digital Games, Design, and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Douglas B. Clark, Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Stephen S. Killingsworth 
Review of Educational Research, 2016
Results from media comparisons indicated that digital games significantly enhanced student learning relative to nongame conditions.

Exploring Issues of Implementation, Equity, and Student Achievement With Educational Software in the DC Public Schools
June Ahn, Austin Beck, John Rice, Michelle Foster 
AERA Open, 2016
Researchers found that time spent in FIM was correlated with improved future performance on standardized math assessments for students in Grades 4–8. However, student time spent using FIM was highly related to factors such as race, gender, and prior achievement.

Improving Access to, Quality, and the Effectiveness of Digital Tutoring in K–12 Education
Patricia Burch, Annalee Good, Carolyn Heinrich 
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 2016
Researchers found significant associations between formats, curriculum drivers, tutor locations, and other characteristics of digital providers and their effectiveness in increasing student achievement, as well as differential access by student characteristics, that warrant further investigation as digital providers’ roles in K–12 instruction continue to expand.

Online Mathematics Homework Increases Student Achievement
Jeremy Roschelle, Mingyu Feng, Robert F. Murphy, Craig A. Mason 
AERA Open, October 2016
Researchers found that the intervention significantly increased student scores on an end-of-the-year standardized mathematics assessment as compared with a control group that continued with existing homework practices. 

Investigating Technology-Enhanced Teacher Professional Development in Rural, High-Poverty Middle Schools
Margaret R. Blanchard, Catherine E. LePrevost, A. Dell Tolin, Kristie S. Gutierrez 
Educational Researcher, April 2016
Researchers found teachers’ reform-based teaching beliefs and their comfort using new technologies increased significantly, and all of the teachers integrated the use of technologies into their instruction.

Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks: A Meta-Analysis
Zsofia K. Takacs, Elise K. Swart, Adriana G. Bus 
Review of Educational Research, 2015
Researchers found that multimedia features like animated pictures, music, and sound effects were found beneficial. In contrast, interactive elements like hotspots, games, and dictionaries were found to be distracting.

Updated Meta-Analysis of Learner Control Within Educational Technology
Abbey C. Karich, Matthew K. Burns, Kathrin E. Maki 
Review of Educational Research, September 2014
Researchers identify ILEs that are taking advantage of learning sciences research, building on the accomplishments of others, and creating the platforms envisioned in the report.

Impacts and Characteristics of Computer-Based Science Inquiry Learning Environments for Precollege Students
Dermot F. Donnelly, Marcia C. Linn, Sten Ludvigsen
Review of Educational Research, December 2014
Researchers found that the choices made by teachers related to rich task pedagogy, technology use, and other resources.

Teachers Choosing Rich Tasks: The Moderating Impact of Technology on Student Learning, Enjoyment, and Preparation
Peter Aubusson, Paul Burke, Sandy Schuck, Matthew Kearney, Bart Frischknecht 
Educational Researcher, June 2014
This article reports on the pioneering use in education of Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) to assess teachers’ decisions regarding deployment of rich tasks.

Emboldened by Embodiment: Six Precepts for Research on Embodied Learning and Mixed Reality
Robb Lindgren, Mina Johnson-Glenberg
Educational Researcher, November 2013 
The authors describe an emerging paradigm of educational research that pairs theories of embodied learning with a class of immersive technologies referred to as mixed reality (MR). 

The State of Wiki Usage in U.S. K–12 Schools: Leveraging Web 2.0 Data Warehouses to Assess Quality and Equity in Online Learning Environments
Justin Reich, Richard Murnane, John Willett 
Educational Researcher, 2012
Researchers found four types of wiki usage: (a) trial wikis and teacher resource-sharing sites (40%), (b) teacher content-delivery sites (34%), (c) individual student assignments and portfolios (25%), and (d) collaborative student presentations and workspaces (1%). 

The Effectiveness of Distance Education Across Virginia's Community Colleges: Evidence From Introductory College-Level Math and English Courses
Di Xu, Shanna Smith Jaggars
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, September 2011
Researchers found that within-school matching on the basis of a multilevel model addresses concerns regarding selection issues more effectively than does traditional propensity score matching across schools.

The Lecture as a Transmedial Pedagogical Form: A Historical Analysis
Norm Friesen
Educational Researcher, April 2011
This article examines the lecture as a pedagogical genre, as “a site where differences between media are negotiated” (Franzel) as these media coevolve.

What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study
Rana M. Tamim, Robert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Philip C. Abrami, Richard F. Schmid 
Review of Educational Research, March 2011
This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology?

New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity in Access, Use, and Outcomes
Mark Warschauer, Tina Matuchniak
Review of Educational Research, 2010
Researchers found that gaps in home access to digital media are still substantial, and inequalities in technology usage and outcomes are even greater. 

A Review of the “Digital Turn” in the New Literacy Studies
Kathy Ann Mills
Review of Educational Research, 2010
Researchers found common patterns across new literacy practices through cross-comparisons of ethnographic research in digital media environments.

Integration of Technology, Curriculum, and Professional Development for Advancing Middle School Mathematics: Three Large-Scale Studies
Jeremy Roschelle, Nicole Shechtman, Deborah Tatar, Stephen Hegedus, Bill Hopkins, Susan Empson, Jennifer Knudsen, Lawrence P. Gallagher
American Educational Research Journal, 2010
Researchers found that SimCalc is effective in enabling a wide variety of teachers in a diversity of settings to extend student learning to more advanced mathematics.

A Meta-Analysis of Three Types of Interaction Treatments in Distance Education
Robert M. Bernard, Philip C. Abrami, Eugene Borokhovski, C. Anne Wade, Rana M. Tamim, Michael A. Surkes, Edward Clement Bethel 
Review of Educational Research, September 2009
Researchers found a strong association between strength and achievement for asynchronous DE courses compared to courses containing mediated synchronous or face-to-face interaction. 

Professional Development in Integrating Technology Into Teaching and Learning: Knowns, Unknowns, and Ways to Pursue Better Questions and Answers
Kimberly A. Lawless, James W. Pellegrino
Review of Educational Research, December 2007
In addition to the findings of a comprehensive literature review, this article also articulates a systematic evaluation plan that, if implemented, will likely yield the information needed to better understand these important educational issues.

Learning Anytime, Anywhere: Advanced Distributed Learning and the Changing Face of Education
J. D. Fletcher, Sigmund Tobias, Robert A. Wisher
Educational Researcher, March 2007
The authors describe the ADL initiative and its implications for K–16 education and call for increased attention from educators and education researchers to the opportunities and challenges represented by anytime, anywhere, distributed learning.

Teaching Courses Online: A Review of the Research
Mary K. Tallent-Runnels, Julie A. Thomas, William Y. Lan, Sandi Cooper, Terence C. Ahern, Shana M. Shaw, Xiaoming Liu
Review of Educational Research, Spring 2006
Researchers found that most of the studies reviewed were descriptive and exploratory, that most online students are nontraditional and Anglo American, and that few universities have written policies, guidelines, or technical support for faculty members or students. 

Going the Distance With Online Education
Jorge Larreamendy-Joerns, Gaea Leinhardt
Review of Educational Research, Winter 2006
The article reviews the history of distance education through the lenses of three historical themes—democratization, liberal education, and educational quality—and charts the current scene of online education in terms of three educational visions that may inform the development of online initiatives: the presentational view, the performance-tutoring view, and the epistemic-engagement view.

How Does Distance Education Compare With Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature
Robert M. Bernard, Philip C. Abrami Yiping Lou, Evgueni Borokhovski, Anne Wade, Lori Wozney, Peter Andrew Wallet, Manon Fiset Binru Huang
Review of Educational Research, Fall 2004
Researchers found that many applications of DE outperform their classroom counterparts and that many perform more poorly.

A Framework for Understanding Teaching With the Internet 
Raven McCrory Wallace
American Educational Research Journal, Summer 2004
Researchers found that affordances vary because of activity design and characteristics of the resource.

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective
Yong Zhao, Kenneth A. Frank 
American Educational Research Journal, 2003
Researchers found that an ecological perspective can provide a powerful analytical framework for understanding technology uses in schools.

Integrating Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Evaluation in a Technology-Supported Genetics Learning Environment
Daniel T. Hickey, Ann C. H. Kindfield, Paul Horwitz, Mary Ann T. Christie
American Educational Research Journal, 2003
Researchers found that relative to matched comparison classes, larger gains were found in technical biology and general science courses but not in college prep or honors biology courses.

Chapter 5: Technology’s Contribution to Teaching and Policy: Efficiency, Standardization, or Transformation?
Barbara Means, Jeremy Roschelle, William Penuel, Nora Sabelli, Geneva Haertel 
Review of Research in Education, January 2003
Researchers found that the connection between technology and policy is looser than other mechanisms such as standards or state assessments.

Tracing Teachers’ Use of Technology in a Laptop Computer School: The Interplay of Teacher Beliefs, Social Dynamics, and Institutional Culture
Mark Windschitl, Kurt Sahl
American Educational Research Journal, Spring 2002
Researchers found that the ways in which those teachers eventually integrated computers into classroom instruction were powerfully mediated by their interrelated belief systems about learners in their school, about what constituted “good teaching” in the context of the institutional culture, and about the role of technology in students’ lives. 

High Access and Low Use of Technologies in High School Classrooms: Explaining an Apparent Paradox
Larry Cuban, Heather Kirkpatrick, Craig Peck
American Educational Research Journal, 2001
Researchers found that access to equipment and software seldom led to widespread teacher and student use. Most teachers were occasional users or nonusers.

Small Group and Individual Learning with Technology: A Meta-Analysis
Yiping Lou, Philip C. Abrami, Sylvia d’Apollonia
Review of Educational Research, Fall 2001
Researchers found that small group learning had significantly more positive effects than individual learning on student individual achievement, group task performance, and several process and affective outcomes.

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