Trending Topic Research: Anti-Racism
Trending Topic Research: Anti-Racism
 
Anti-Racism
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Trending Topic Research File

Anti-racist education ensures that every student receives an education that is truthful and free from bias in a supportive setting. 

The following compendium of open-access articles are inclusive of all substantive AERA journal content regarding anti-racism published since 2001. This page will be updated as new articles are published. 

AERA Journal Articles

Note: Articles are listed below in reverse chronological order of publication. 

“It’s a Marathon, Not a Sprint”: The Implementation and Outcomes of a Yearlong Racial Justice Intervention
Adriana Villvicencio, Sarah Klevan, Dana Conlin, Kathryn Hill
AERA Open, July 2022
Researchers found that educators participating in a yearlong racial justice program demonstrated a deeper understanding of their own racial biases, developed a shared language to identify and name different forms of racism, and reported greater confidence to disrupt racist incidents in their schools.

Critical What What? A Theoretical Systematic Review of 15 Years of Critical Race Theory Research in Social Studies Education, 2004–2019
Christopher L. Busey, Kristen E. Duncan, Tianna Dowie-Chin
Review of Educational Research, July 2022
Researchers found that contrary to the proliferation of CRT in educational research, CRT was slow to catch on as a theoretical and analytic framework in social studies education, as only seven of the articles in our analysis were published between 2004 and 2010. 

Toward New Beginnings: A Review of Native, White, and Black American Education Through the 19th Century
Jarvis R. Givens, Ashley Ison
Review of Educational Research, July 2022
To explore connections between race, school, and nation building, this review presents a relational analysis of scholarship on Native, White, and Black American education through the 19th century.

Pedagogical Progressivism and Black Education: A Historiographical Review, 1880–1957
Michael Hines, Thomas Fallace
Review of Educational Research, July 2022
While many historians have focused on the overt/covert racism inherent in much of progressive pedagogy as espoused by White educators, others have highlighted the ways in pedagogical progressivism supported movements toward liberation and social justice, especially when taken up by Black educators.

Shared Book Reading for Spanish-Speaking Emergent Bilinguals: A Review of Experimental Studies
Danielle L. Pico, Christine Woods
Review of Educational Research, June 2022
Researchers identified 17 relevant studies, 11 of which we determined met What Works Clearinghouse™ (WWC) quality standards with or without reservations. Of these, 10 also demonstrated statistically significant effects on at least one language-related outcome.

A Systematic Review of Student Disability and Race Representation in Universal School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions for Elementary School Students
Christina Cipriano, Lauren H. Naples, Abigail Eveleigh, Amanda Cook, Melissa Funaro, Colleen Cassidy, Michael F. McCarthy, Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlichtmann
Review of Educational Research, June 2022
Eleven studies explicitly excluded students with disabilities. Studies varied widely in how disability and racial identity were categorized within and across studies and provided limited evidence of effectiveness through the use of subgroup analyses to support meaningful assessment of how students with disabilities and racially minoritized elementary school age students are benefiting from USB SEL interventions. 

Stances Toward Anti-Racist Medical Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Critical Consciousness in First-Year Medical Students
Daniel A. Novak, Ronan Hallowell, Kairos Llobrera, Jacob Schreiber, Erika Wright, Donna Elliott
AERA Open, June 2022
Researchers found that students enter medical school in a range of states of critical consciousness that are visible in their “stances” toward addressing racial inequality in the healthcare system. 

Black Queer Students’ Counter-Stories of Invisibility in Undergraduate STEM as a White, Cisheteropatriarchal Space
Luis A. Leyva, R. Taylor McNeill, B R. Balmer, Brittany L. Marshall, V. Elizabeth King, Zander D. Alley
American Educational Research Journal, May 2022
Drawing on Black queer studies and a proposed framework of STEM education as a White, cisheteropatriarchal space, this study addresses this research gap by exploring four Black queer students’ experiences of oppression and agency in navigating invisibility as STEM majors.

Critiquing Racial Literacy: Presenting a Continuum of Racial Literacies
Laura C. Chávez-Moreno
Educational Researcher, May 2022
The author presents a continuum of racial literacies to differentiate between hegemonic and counterhegemonic racial literacies.

The Imperative for Social Foundations Revisited: A Technical Comment on Warren and Venzant Chambers (2020)
Elena Aydarova, Sarah Newcomer, Carla McNelly, Mariela Nuñez-Janes, Sofia A. Villenas
Educational Researcher, May 2022
Warren and Venzant Chambers (2020) raised an important concern about the marginalization and elimination of social foundations of education in educator preparation. Yet, their focus on “an essential tripartite coalition of disciplinary perspectives” encapsulated in sociology, history, and philosophy runs counter the interdisciplinary nature of social foundations.

Reply to “The Imperative for Social Foundations Revisited: A Technical Comment on Warren and Venzant Chambers (2020)"
Chezare A. Warren, Terah Venzant Chambers
Educational Researcher, May 2022 
This essay responds to the technical comment by clarifying what the researchers found to be a fundamental misinterpretation of our argument and, ultimately, its scholarly purpose.

The Segregation of Students by Income in Public Schools
Kari Dalane, Dave E. Marcotte
Educational Researcher, May 2022
Researchers found that within-school segregation rose by about 10% between 2007 and 2014 in elementary and middle schools we study.

School Discipline and Racial Disparities in Early Adulthood
Miles Davison, Andrew M. Penner, Emily K. Penner, Nikolas Pharris-Ciurej, Sonya R. Porter, Evan K. Rose, Yotam Shem-Tov, Paul Yoo
Educational Researcher, April 2022 
Researchers found that the link between school discipline and young adult outcomes tends to be stronger for Black students than for White students, and that approximately 30% of the Black–White disparities in young adult criminal justice outcomes, SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) receipt, and college completion can be traced back to inequalities in exposure to school discipline.

Legal Challenges to Bias Response Teams on College Campuses
Liliana M. Garces, Evelyn Ambriz, Jackie Pedota
Educational Researcher, April 2022
In this commentary, the authors bring attention to this renewed wave of legal attacks on racial diversity and inclusion policies on college campuses and its implications for race-focused policy, practice, and research.

Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Relationship Between Children’s Early Literacy Skills and Third-Grade Outcomes: Lessons From a Kindergarten Readiness Assessment
Walter A. Herring, Daphna Bassok, Anita S. McGinty, Luke C. Miller, James H. Wyckoff
Educational Researcher, April 2022
Researchers found significant racial and socioeconomic differences in the likelihood that a child will be proficient on their third-grade reading assessment.

Creativity as a Racializing and Ableizing Scientific Object: Disentangling the Democratic Impulse From Justice-Oriented Futures
Ryan Ziols, Natalie Renee Davis, Teri Holbrook, Sarah Bridges
Review of Research in Education, April 2022
In this review, the authors consider some key shifts and themes in creativity studies that we feel have resonance today. 

Black Brilliance and Creative Problem Solving in Fugitive Spaces: Advancing the BlackCreate Framework Through a Systematic Review
Lauren C. Mims, Lisa DaVia Rubenstein, Jenna Thomas
Review of Research in Education, April 2022
Through their systematic review of 155 publications, the authors developed the BlackCreate Framework to illustrate how effective Black creative educational experiences (BCEEs) create fugitive spaces for creative expression and education.

To Democratize, First Decolonize: Approaches Beyond Eurocentric and Colonial Epistemologies in Creativity
Rohit Mehta, Danah Anne Henriksen
Review of Research in Education, April 2022
The researchers found themes that are not new but are yet to be taken up consistently and credibly in western creativity and education research and practice.

Unapologetically Black Creative Educational Experiences in Higher Education: A Critical Review
Lori D. Patton, Toby S. Jenkins, Gloria L. Howell, Anthony R. Keith, Jr.
Review of Research in Education, April 2022
Using African-centered frameworks, the authors provide a methodological guide for examining BCEEs in education research, which includes centering Black “ways of knowing,” validating creative expressions cultivated by and for Black people, acknowledging the influence of Black creative expression on research and practice, considering researcher positionalities as observers and cultivators of Black creative expression, and viewing Black creative expression as knowledge production.

Democratizing Creative Early Educational Experiences: A Matter of Racial Justice
Mariana Souto-Manning, Abby C. Emerson, Gina Marcel, Ayesha Rabadi-Raol, Adrielle Turner
Review of Research in Education, April 2022
This review undertakes a transformative justice in education approach, attending to the historical roots of the contemporary racialized politics of belonging.

What If We Leave It Up to Chance? Admissions Lotteries and Equitable Access at Selective Colleges
Dominique J. Baker, Michael N. Bastedo
Educational Researcher, March 2022 
In the overwhelming majority of lottery simulations, the proportions of low-income students and students of color drop precipitously. With a GPA minimum, the proportion of men could drop as low as one third.

Federalism, Race, and the Politics of Turnaround: U.S. Public Opinion on Improving Low-Performing Schools and Districts
Beth E. Schueler, Martin R. West
Educational Researcher, March 2022
Researchers found controversy surrounding state intervention into low-performing schools is not driven by a generalized allegiance to local control over education.

Deurbanization and the Struggle to Sustain a Black Teaching Corps: Evidence From Michigan
Steven Drake, Joshua Cowen
Educational Researcher, January/February 2022 
Districts receiving large numbers of incoming Black students hired few Black teachers over the period, leading to marked declines in Black student exposure to Black educators, and Black employment gains since 2016 have generally been in areas where Black teachers were already employed. 

Determinants of Ethnic Differences in School Modality Choices During the COVID-19 Crisis
Andrew M. Camp, Gema Zamarro
Educational Researcher, January/February 2022
School districts’ offerings, political partisanship, perceived risk from the pandemic, and local COVID-19 outbreaks are all meaningfully associated with and plausibly explain the in-person learning racial gap. 

Improv Theater and Whiteness in Education: A Systematic Literature Review
Samuel J. Tanner, Andrea McCloskey
Review of Educational Research, February 2022
Researchers found that Whiteness has been central to the use of improvisation in educational contexts.

Equity and Social Justice in Research Practice Partnerships in the United States
Amy Vetter, Beverly S. Faircloth, Kimberly K. Hewitt, Laura M. Gonzalez, Ye He, Marcia L. Rock
Review of Educational Research, January 2022
Researchers identified 17 exemplar projects that explicitly and effectively forefront equity and justice in RPPs, what we call equity-focused.

Police as “Helpers”: Social Studies Content Standards and Dominant Narratives of Law Enforcement
Suneal Kolluri, Kimberly Young
Educational Researcher, December 2021
While police in marginalized communities are widely viewed as illegitimate, implicated in a long history of violence, and embedded in structures of oppression, researchers found that in social studies standards, they are conveyed as the opposite. 

Racial Disparities in Pre-K Quality: Evidence From New York City’s Universal Pre-K Program
Scott Latham, Sean P. Corcoran, Carolyn Sattin-Bajaj, Jennifer L. Jennings
Educational Researcher, December 2021
Relative to other jurisdictions, researchers found the average quality of public pre-K providers is high.

Critiquing Empire Through Desirability: A Review of 40 Years of Filipinx Americans in Education Research, 1980 to 2020
Dina C. Maramba, Edward R. Curammeng, Xavier J. Hernandez
Review of Educational Research, December 2021
Researchers found that researchers often position Filipinx Americans relative to whiteness or utilize critical educational framings to interrogate the complex ways they are racialized.

Navigating the Double Bind: A Systematic Literature Review of the Experiences of Novice Teachers of Color in K–12 Schools
Elizabeth Bettini, Christopher J. Cormier, Maalavika Ragunathan, Kristabel Stark
Review of Educational Research, December 2021
Researchers found that novices’ experiences of their socialization into K–12 educational institutions were deeply racialized, through their interactions with every aspect of K–12 educational systems.

Race Without Gender? Trends and Limitations in the Higher Education Scholarship Regarding Men of Color
Nolan L. Cabrera, Alex K. Karaman, Tracy Arámbula Ballysingh, Yadira G. Oregon, Eliaquin A. Gonell, Jameson D. Lopez, Regina Deil-Amen
Review of Educational Research, November 2021
Findings revealed that the bulk of scholarship involved onetime interviews for its empirical foundations, and the overwhelming majority centered the racial experiences of Black and Latinx men. 

Rethinking Learning: What the Interdisciplinary Science Tells Us
Na’ilah Suad Nasir, Carol D. Lee, Roy Pea, Maxine McKinney de Royston
Educational Researcher, November 2021
In this article, researchers build on recent research in education, neuroscience, psychology, and anthropology to articulate a theory of learning that has the potential to move us toward that goal. 

From Producing to Reducing Trauma: A Call for “Trauma-Informed” Research(ers) to Interrogate How Schools Harm Students
Robert Petrone, Christine Rogers Stanton
Educational Researcher, November 2021
Researchers argue for a shift from research that focuses on “trauma-informed education” to scholarship that enacts a sociohistorical trauma-reducing framework to more effectively interrogate the intersections of trauma, schooling, and research.

Evaluating Achievement Gaps Between Monolingual and Multilingual Students
J. Marc Goodrich, Lauren Thayer, Sergio Leiva
Educational Researcher, October 2021
Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, this study reported that there were substantial achievement gaps that were narrowing over time at the state level but that there were no achievement gaps between monolingual and multilingual students in large school districts.

“Decolonizing” Curriculum and Pedagogy: A Comparative Review Across Disciplines and Global Higher Education Contexts
Riyad A. Shahjahan, Annabelle L. Estera, Kristen L. Surla, Kirsten T. Edwards
Review of Educational Research, September 2021
Researchers observed three major meanings of decolonization and four ways to actualize DCP that were associated with geographical, disciplinary, institutional, and/or stakeholder contexts. 

Exploring Racialized Factors to Understand Why Black Mathematics Teachers Consider Leaving the Profession
Toya Jones Frank, Marvin G. Powell, Jenice L. View, Christina Lee, Jay A. Bradley, Asia Williams
Educational Researcher, August/September 2021
Researchers found that anti-Black, racist microaggressions should be addressed as organizational conditions to be mitigated. 

Understanding Influences of Development on Black Women’s Success in U.S. Colleges: A Synthesis of Literature
Christa J. Porter, Janice A. Byrd
Review of Educational Research, June 2021
The purpose of this study was to illuminate how and to what extent Black women’s developmental processes have influenced their success within their respective U.S. college environments. 

Reframing Suburbs: Race, Place, and Opportunity in Suburban Educational Spaces
John B. Diamond, Linn Posey-Maddox, María D. Velázquez
Educational Researcher, May 2021
Researchers argue that the changing nature of suburban schools and communities, and the history of their creation as education spaces, make them advantageous locations for education researchers to study many pressing issues and expand the ways we understand the intersections of race, place and inequality.

When Does Inequality Grow? A Seasonal Analysis of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Learning From Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade
Megan Kuhfeld, Dennis J. Condron, Douglas B. Downey
Educational Researcher, May 2021
Researchers found that Black-White achievement gaps widen during school periods and shrink during summers, whereas Asian students generally pull ahead of White students at a faster rate during summers. 

Immigration Status and College Students’ Psychosocial Well-Being
Germán A. Cadenas, H. Kenny Nienhusser
Educational Researcher, April 2021
Researchers found that on all measures, except ethnic identity, students with abject immigration status experienced worse well-being than other students, and these differences were statistically significant.

Troubling the Essentialist Discourse of Brown in Education: The Anti-Black Sociopolitical and Sociohistorical Etymology of Latinxs as a Brown Monolith
Christopher L. Busey, Carolyn Silva
Educational Researcher, April 2021
In this conceptual essay, the authors apprehend the currents of hemispheric racial formation within a South–North orientation to problematize the essentialist ethos of US Latinxs as monolithically Brown.

Meeting the Needs of All Cultureless Learners: Culture Discourse and Quality Assumptions in Personalized Learning Research
Ekaterina Strekalova-Hughes, Kindel T. Nash, Bevin Schmer, Karnissa Caldwell
Review of Research in Education, April 2021
This review reveals a disconnect between the relevant literature on culture in learning and omissions of researchers and research participants’ cultural positionalities and identities.

Disproportionality Reduction in Exclusionary School Discipline: A Best-Evidence Synthesis
Rebecca A. Cruz, Allison R. Firestone, Janelle E. Rodl
Review of Educational Research, March 2021
The purpose of this literature synthesis was to examine the effectiveness of empirically studied school-based interventions in reducing disproportionality in discipline practices. 

The Politics of Publishing: A National Conversation With Scholars Who Use Their Research About Black Women to Address Intersectionality
Nicole M. Joseph, Chayla Haynes, Lori D. Patton
Educational Researcher, March 2021
This feature article attends to this question by opening a national conversation with education researchers who take up intersectionality in their study of Black women in higher education, specifically, the application of Kimberlé Crenshaw’s intersectionality dimensions—structural, political, and representational.

Investigating Young Children’s Conceptualizations of Disability and Race: An Intersectional, Multiplane Critique
Margaret R. Beneke
Educational Researcher, March 2021
Bridging disability critical race theory (DisCrit) and sociocultural perspectives, this essay proposes the need for intersectional, multiplane qualitative data generation in studying young children’s disability and race conceptualizations to account for the ways intersecting, oppressive ideologies are perpetuated in young children’s worlds.

Sharpening Justice Through DisCrit: A Contrapuntal Analysis of Education
Subini Ancy Annamma, Tamara Handy
Educational Researcher, January/February 2021
By recognizing connectedness and maintaining tensions framed within DisCrit, this article enumerates expansive conceptualizations of justice through centering multiply-marginalized communities of color.

Assessing Preservice Teachers’ Cultural Competence With the Cultural Proficiency Continuum Q-Sort
Dwayne Ray Cormier
Educational Researcher, January/February 2021
This study demonstrated that educational design research together with professional development schools are an ideal context to develop tools in a real-world setting aimed to address issues around racial and social justice and cultural competence within teacher education programs and PreK–12 schools and classrooms.

African American Parents’ Educational Involvement in Urban Schools: Contextualized Strategies for Student Success in Adolescence
James P. Huguley, Lori Delale-O’Connor, Ming-Te Wang, Alyssa K. Parr
Educational Researcher, January/February 2021
Findings demonstrate how African American parents engage in racially infused and contextually tailored navigational involvement approaches as they seek to offset the effects of inhibiting educational contexts.

Interrogating Structural Racism in STEM Higher Education
Ebony Omotola McGee
Educational Researcher, December 2020
The authors argues that, even at the top of the education hierarchy, Black STEM doctorate students and PhD degree holders consistently endure the racist residue of higher education institutions and STEM employers.

How Does Initial Teacher Education Research Frame the Challenge of Preparing Future Teachers for Student Diversity in Schools? A Systematic Review of Literature
Leonie Rowan, Terri Bourke, Lyra L’Estrange, Jo Lunn Brownlee, Mary Ryan, Susan Walker, Peter Churchward
Review of Educational Research, December 2020
This article provides a systematic review of literature relating to both “teacher education” and “diverse learners,” to identify knowledge claims regarding the way this “problem” and possible “solutions” should be framed.

The Youthwork Paradox: A Case for Studying the Complexity of Community-Based Youth Work in Education Research
Bianca J. Baldridge
Educational Researcher, November 2020
Building on existing scholarship on community-based youth work and my current research, the author presents the youthwork paradox, a framework that captures the complexity of the field and its relationship to structural forces and larger systems of oppression.

Asian Americans, Admissions, and College Choice: An Empirical Test of Claims of Harm Used in Federal Investigations
Mike Hoa Nguyen, Connie Y. Chang, Victoria Kim, Rose Ann E. Gutierrez, Annie Le, Denis Dumas, Robert T. Teranishi
Educational Researcher, November 2020
This study empirically tests the claims made by CAAA and AACE with particular attention to the differences in Asian American student outcomes, relative to their college admissions and choice decisions. 

Bias in the Air: A Nationwide Exploration of Teachers’ Implicit Racial Attitudes, Aggregate Bias, and Student Outcomes
Mark J. Chin, David M. Quinn, Tasminda K. Dhaliwal, Virginia S. Lovison
Educational Researcher, November 2020
Researchers found that teachers’ implicit White/Black biases (as measured by the implicit association test) vary by teacher gender and race.

Prior Problem Behaviors Do Not Account for the Racial Suspension Gap
Francis L. Huang
Educational Researcher, October 2020
Researchers reanalyzed the public-use ECLS-K and provide syntax for our analyses to show that the findings were primarily due to sample selection bias.

Experimental Effects of “Achievement Gap” News Reporting on Viewers’ Racial Stereotypes, Inequality Explanations, and Inequality Prioritization
David M. Quinn
Educational Researcher, October 2020
Results indicate that a TV news story about racial achievement gaps (vs. a control or counterstereotypical video) led viewers to express more exaggerated stereotypes of Black Americans as lacking education and may have increased viewers’ implicit stereotyping of Black students as less competent than White students.

2019 Wallace Foundation Distinguished Lecture: Education Research and the Disruption of Racialized Distortions: Establishing a Wide Angle View
Carla O’Connor
Educational Researcher, October 2020
Given contemporary recognition of how racialized micro-interactions and the embedded distortions of marginalized and minoritized folk compound over time to produce and reify educational stratification and inequality, this article is an opportunity to think more deliberately about how education researchers can better delineate empirically and conceptually the complexity and temporal spread of these micro-moments, their reproductive momentum, and the prospects for disruption.

Is School Racial/Ethnic Composition Associated With Content Coverage in Algebra?
Karisma Morton, Catherine Riegle-Crumb
Educational Researcher, August/September 2020
Results of regression analyses reveal that, net of school, teacher, and student characteristics, the time that teachers report spending on algebra and more advanced content in eighth grade algebra classes is significantly lower in schools that are predominantly Black compared to those that are not predominantly minority.

Beyond Equity as Inclusion: A Framework of “Rightful Presence” for Guiding Justice-Oriented Studies in Teaching and Learning
Angela Calabrese Barton, Edna Tan
Educational Researcher, August/September 2020
This essay presents a rightful presence framework to guide the study of teaching and learning in justice-oriented ways.

Toward an Anti-Imperialistic Critical Race Analysis of the Model Minority Myth
Varaxy Yi, Jacqueline Mac, Vanessa S. Na, Rikka J. Venturanza, Samuel D. Museus, Tracy Lachica Buenavista, Sumun L. Pendakur
Review of Educational Research, June 2020
To understand this conflict in existing literature, the current authors utilize an anti-imperialistic approach to analyze scholarship on the model minority myth. 

Seeing Race in the Research on Youth Trauma and Education: A Critical Review
Adam Alvarez
Review of Educational Research, June 2020
This article uses a racialization framework to examine how trauma is discussed in the literature with respect to youth in preK–12 educational contexts.

Deportations Near the Schoolyard: Examining Immigration Enforcement and Racial/Ethnic Gaps in Educational Outcomes
J. Jacob Kirksey, Carolyn Sattin-Bajaj, Michael A. Gottfried, Jennifer Freeman, Christopher S. Ozuna
AERA Open, 2020
This study examined the associations between deportations near school districts and racial/ethnic gaps in educational outcomes in school districts across the country. 

Content Analysis of Textbooks via Natural Language Processing: Findings on Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Texas U.S. History Textbooks
Li Lucy, Dorottya Demszky, Patricia Bromley, Dan Jurafsky
AERA Open, 2020
Researchers found that Latinx people are rarely discussed, and the most common famous figures are nearly all White men.

Held Down and Held Back: Systematically Delayed Principal Promotions by Race and Gender
Lauren P. Bailes, Sarah Guthery
AERA Open, 2020
Researchers found that race and gender are associated with the probability of promotion to school leadership.

Stasis and Change in Public School District Racial/Ethnic Segregation, 1993–2015
Meredith P. Richards, Kori James Stroub, Camila Cigarroa Kennedy
AERA Open, 2020
Researchers found that despite relatively high and stable levels of segregation nationally, stability is the rule, rather than the exception, for the majority of public school districts.

“I’m a Teacher, I’m Gonna Always Protect You”: Understanding Black Educators’ Protection of Black Children
Maxine McKinney de Royston, Tia C. Madkins, Jarvis R. Givens, Na’ilah Suad Nasir
American Educational Research Journal, 2020
Through further elaborating the politicized caring framework, the analyses show how Black educators disrupt the racialized harm produced within schools to instead (re)position Black students as children worthy of protection via caring relationships, alternative discipline policies, and other interpersonal and institutional mechanisms.

A Matter of Measurement: How Different Ways of Measuring Racial Gaps in School Discipline Can Yield Drastically Different Conclusions About Racial Disparities in Discipline
F. Chris Curran
Educational Researcher, 2020
This brief shows how interpretations of the Black-White discipline gap can be drastically different when using different metrics.

Fifteenth Annual AERA Brown Lecture in Education Research: Disrupting Punitive Practices and Policies: Rac(e)ing Back to Teaching, Teacher Preparation, and Brown
H. Richard Milner, IV
Educational Researcher, 2020
Milner argues that we should change our language of disciplinary practices to punishment practices to more accurately capture current practices. 

Teachers Are People Too: Examining the Racial Bias of Teachers Compared to Other American Adults
Jordan G. Starck, Travis Riddle, Stacey Sinclair, Natasha Warikoo
Educational Researcher, 2020
The findings suggest that if schools are to effectively promote racial equity, teachers should be provided with training to either shift or mitigate the effects of their own racial biases.

Disability, Race, and the Geography of School Choice: Toward an Intersectional Analytical Framework
Federico R. Waitoller, Christopher Lubienski
AERA Open, 2019
In this article, the authors describe a theoretical framework to address two limitations of research on school choice sets: limited attention to students with disabilities and dichotomization of space and place. 

Pathways to Inequality: Between-District Segregation and Racial Disparities in School District Expenditures
Victoria E. Sosina, Ericka S. Weathers
AERA Open, 2019
Researchers found that changes in racial/ethnic segregation within a state from 1999 through 2013 are associated with racial/ethnic disparities in spending, even after accounting for disparities in poverty.

Racial Segregation in the Southern Schools, School Districts, and Counties Where Districts Have Seceded
Kendra Taylor, Erica Frankenberg, Genevieve Siegel-Hawley
AERA Open, 2019
Researchers show that school district secession is restructuring school segregation in the counties where secession is occurring, with segregation increasingly occurring because students attend different school districts. 

Focused Classroom Coaching and Widespread Racial Equity in School Discipline
Anne Gregory, Erik A. Ruzek, Jamie DeCoster, Amori Yee Mikami, Joseph P. Allen
AERA Open, 2019
Results suggested that the coaching program had no generalized effects on reducing referrals with African American students or racial referral gaps in classrooms with coached teachers, relative to the control teachers and the other teachers in the schools.

Immigration Enforcement and Student Achievement in the Wake of Secure Communities
Laura Bellows
AERA Open, 2019
Researchers found that the activation of Secure Communities was associated with decreases in average achievement for Hispanic students in English Language Arts as well as Black students in English Language Arts and math. 

Research on the Leadership of Black Women Principals: Implications for Black Students
Kofi Lomotey
Educational Researcher, 2019
Researchers highlight the methodological and theoretical traits of these studies, single out overstressed approaches, and highlight the most significant gaps in research on Black women principals.

“Black Genius, Asian Fail”: The Detriment of Stereotype Lift and Stereotype Threat in High-Achieving Asian and Black STEM Students
Ebony McGee
AERA Open, 2018
This article describes the role of race-based stereotypes in shaping the experiences of high-achieving Black and Asian STEM college students.

Student-Teacher Race Congruence: New Evidence and Insight From Tennessee
Ela Joshi, Sy Doan, Matthew G. Springer
AERA Open, 2018 
Researchers observe meaningful effects for Black students in both reading and math, race-matched students in the bottom-most preparedness quartile in math, and race-matched students assigned to teachers in the middle two teacher performance quartiles in math. 

Persistently Harsh Punishments Amid Efforts to Reform: Using Tools From Social Psychology to Counteract Racial Bias in School Disciplinary Decisions
Simone Ispa-Landa
Educational Researcher, 2018
Teachers’ implicit racial bias likely contributes to racial disparities in school discipline.

Twelfth Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research: So That Any Child May Succeed: Indigenous Pathways Toward Justice and the Promise of Brown
Teresa L. McCarty
Educational Researcher, 2018 
This lecture considers the Brown legacy and broader issues of education equality in the context of research, policy, and practice in Indigenous education.

Learning Race and Racism While Learning: Experiences of International Students Pursuing Higher Education in the Midwestern United States
Donald Mitchell, Jr., Tiffany Steele, Jakia Marie, Kathryn Timm
AERA Open, 2017
This qualitative study explored how international students learned about U.S. concepts of race and racism and how such concepts shaped their college experiences. 

A Ratchet Lens: Black Queer Youth, Agency, Hip Hop, and the Black Ratchet Imagination
Bettina L. Love
Educational Researcher, 2017
This article explores the utilization of the theory of a Black ratchet imagination as a methodological perspective to examine the multiple intersections of Black and queer identity constructions within the space of hip hop. 

Discretion and Disproportionality: Explaining the Underrepresentation of High-Achieving Students of Color in Gifted Programs
Jason A. Grissom and Christopher Redding
AERA Open, 2016
Even after conditioning on test scores and other factors, Black students indeed are referred to gifted programs, particularly in reading, at significantly lower rates when taught by non-Black teachers, a concerning result given the relatively low incidence of assignment to own-race teachers among Black students.

Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: A Critical Examination of the Conceptualization of the Study of Black Racial Identity in Education
Sabrina Zirkel, Tabora Johnson
Educational Researcher, 2016
Despite a proliferation of theories suggesting a “damaged” Black psyche and suspicion about its value to Black youth, researchers found the history of research about Black racial identity reveals robust and consistent evidence that Black racial identity is linked to a broad range of positive outcomes from measures of well-being—including greater resilience, coping with discrimination, higher academic performance, greater commitment to education, and improved educational outcomes on a number of measures. 

We May Well Become Accomplices: To Rear a Generation of Spectators Is Not to Educate at All
Joyce E. King
Educational Researcher, 2016
Research on education and society is the focus in discussing four essays of AERA past presidents, Newton Edwards, Maxine Greene, Linda Darling-Hammond, and William F. Tate, IV. 

What Teacher Education Can Learn From Blackface Minstrelsy
Timothy J. Lensmire, Nathan Snaza
Educational Researcher, 2016
Researchers argue that at the core of White racial selves is a profound ambivalence that must be accounted for if future research is to better illuminate what the racial identities of White future teachers mean for their development as educators.

Toxic Rain in Class: Classroom Interpersonal Microaggressions
Carola Suárez-Orozco, Saskias Casanova, Margary Martin, Dalal Katsiaficas, Veronica Cuellar, Naila Antonia Smith, Sandra Isabel Dias
Educational Researcher, 2015
The findings provide evidence that classroom MAs occur frequently—in nearly 30% of the observed community college classrooms.

Colorizing Educational Research: African American Life and Schooling as an Exemplar
Carla R. Monroe
Educational Researcher, 2013
This article augments considerations of social forces by exploring how color classifications within racial arrangements frame pathways for communities of color and, therefore, must inform educational inquiries. 

Black Educational Choice: Race (Still) Matters
Kofi Lomotey
Educational Researcher, 2012
Black Educational Choice (BEC) is a 19-chapter edited volume focused on analyzing the value of schools of choice for African American families.

Mobilizing Culture, Language, and Educational Practices
Luis C. Moll
Educational Researcher, 2010
In commemorating the landmark Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision, this lecture also honors the Mendez v. Westminster case of 1946, a successful challenge to the segregated schooling of Mexican and Mexican American students in California.

Why Study the U.S. South? The Nexus of Race and Place in Investigating Black Student Achievement
Jerome E. Morris, Carla R. Monroe
Educational Researcher, 2009
The authors refine the scholarship on the Black–White achievement gap through an analysis of racialized national spaces and population shifts, to set forth a more comprehensive understanding of school achievement than previously existed.

Fourth Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research—Lessons Learned and Opportunities Ignored Since Brown v. Board of Education: Youth Development and the Myth of a Color-Blind Society
Margaret Beale Spencer
Educational Researcher, 2008
The author of this article argues that the Clarks and their social science colleagues missed an opportunity to view Black youth as diverse human beings engaged in normal developmental tasks under difficult conditions. 

Made in the (Multicultural) U.S.A.: Unpacking Tensions of Race, Culture, Gender, and Sexuality in Education
Nina Asher
Educational Researcher, 2007
The author discusses the challenges of educating teachers to engage, rather than deny or repress, differences that emerge at the dynamic, context-specific intersections of race, culture, gender, and sexuality.

Third Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research—The Flat Earth and Education: How America’s Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future
Linda Darling-Hammond 
Educational Researcher, 2007
This article outlines current disparities in educational access; illustrates the relationships between race, educational resources, and student achievement; and proposes reforms needed to equalize opportunities to learn.

Race, Class, and Disproportionality: Reevaluating the Relationship Between Poverty and Special Education Placement
Carla O’Connor, Sonia DeLuca Fernandez
Educational Researcher, 2006
This article analyzes how a recent National Research Council report (2002) defined the impact of poverty in explaining the overrepresentation of minority students in special education. 

A Forward Glance in a Mirror: Diversity Challenged—Access, Equity, and Success in Higher Education
Walter R. Allen
Educational Researcher, 2005
Higher education must be a model for society in promoting equity, excellence, and diversity.

“So When It Comes Out, They Aren’t That Surprised That It Is There”: Using Critical Race Theory as a Tool of Analysis of Race and Racism in Education
Jessica T. DeCuir, Adrienne D. Dixson
Educational Researcher, 2004 
In this article, the researchers illustrate how CRT can be used to examine the experiences of African-American students.

The Dilemmas, Challenges, and Duality of an African-American Educational Historian
Derrick P. Alridge
Educational Researcher, 2003
This article examines the dilemmas and challenges of objectivity, presentism, and voice and agency the author has encountered as an African-American historian of education whose research focuses on the education of Black people. 

This Ain’t Talk Therapy: Problematizing and Extending Anti-Oppressive Education
Dan W. Butin
Educational Researcher, 2002
Specifically, this article suggests that a “posts” classroom must work under the construct of a “weak overcoming” that focuses on the structure of schooling and the organization of classroom practice.

Re-Visiting White Racism in Educational Research: Critical Race Theory and the Problem of Method
Gerardo R. López
Educational Researcher, 2001
CRT abandons the neutral concept of “a color blind society” in favor of a critical perspective that recognizes the normality—and thus invisibility—of racism in our daily lives.

 
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