Links to Articles Cited in 2022 AERA Brief
Links to Articles Cited in 2022 AERA Brief

Note: Full text is not available for references with an *asterisk. However, the links provided lead to publisher’s pages that include helpful information such as abstracts, metadata, and purchase information.

*Affirmative Action and Racial Equity (Uma M. Jayakumar & Liliana M. Garces eds. 2015)

*Alon, Sigal, Race, Class and Affirmative Action (2015)

*Antonio, Anthony Lising, Mitchell J. Chang, Kenji Hakuta, David A. Kenny, Shana Levin & Jeffrey F. Milem, Effects of Racial Diversity on Complex Thinking in College Students, 15 Psychol. Sci. 507 (2004)

Blume, Grant H. & Mark C. Long, Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings, 36 Educ. Eval. & Pol’y Analysis 228 (2014)

*Bowen, Deirdre M., Brilliant Disguise: An Empirical Analysis of a Social Experiment iv Banning Affirmative Action, 85 Ind. L.J. 1197 (2010)

Bowen, William G., Matthew W. Chingos & Michael S. McPherson, Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America’s Public Universities (2009)

*Bowman, Nicholas A. & Nida Denson, Institutional Racial Representation and Equity Gaps in College Graduation, 93 J. Higher Educ. 399 (2022)

Bowman, Nicholas A., College Diversity Experiences and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analysis, 80 Rev. Educ. Res. 4 (2010)

Bowman, Nicholas A., Jay W. Brandenberger, Patrick L. Hill & Daniel K. Lapsley, The Long-Term Effects of College Diversity Experiences: Well-Being and Social Concerns 13 Years After Graduation, 52 J.C. Student Dev. 729 (2011)

Bowman. Nicholas A., Promoting Participation in a Diverse Democracy: A Meta-Analysis of College Diversity Experiences and Civic Engagement, 81 Rev. Educ. Res. 29 (2011)

*Chang, Mitchell J., Alexander W. Astin & Dongbin Kim, Cross-Racial Interaction Among Undergraduates: Some Consequences, Causes, and Patterns, 45 Res. Higher Educ. 529 (2004)

Chang, Mitchell J., Nida Denson, Victor Saenz & Kimberly Misa, The Educational Benefits of Sustaining Cross-Racial Interaction Among Undergraduates, 77 J. Higher Educ. 430 (2006)

*Chun, Edna & Alvin Evans, Affirmative Action at a Crossroads: Fisher and Forward (2015)

Dale, Stacy & Alan Krueger, Estimating the Effects of College Characteristics over the Career Using Administrative Earnings Data, J. Hum. Resources 323 (2014)

Davies, Kristin, Linda R. Tropp, Arthur Aron, Thomas F. Pettigrew & Stephen C. Wright, Cross-Group Friendships and Intergroup Attitudes: A Meta-Analytic Review, 15 Personality & Soc. Psychol. Rev. 332 (2011)

Denson, Nida & Mitchell J. Chang, Racial Diversity Matters: The Impact of DiversityRelated Student Engagement and Institutional Context, 46 Am. Educ. Res. J. 322 (2009)

Denson, Nida, Do Curricular and Cocurricular Diversity Activities Influence Racial Bias? A Meta-Analysis, 79 Rev. Educ. Res. 805 (2009)

*Deo, Meera E., The Promise of Grutter: Diverse Interactions at the University of Michigan Law School, 17 Mich. J. Race & L. 63 (2011)

Engberg, Mark E. & Sylvia Hurtado, Developing Pluralistic Skills and Dispositions in College: Examining Racial/Ethnic Group Differences, 82 J. Higher Educ. 416 (2011)

*Engberg, Mark E., Educating the Workforce for the 21st Century: A Cross‐Disciplinary Analysis of the Impact of the Undergraduate Experience on Students’ Development of a Pluralistic Orientation, 48 Res. Higher Educ. 283 (2007)

Expert Report of Dr. Uma Jayakumar, Students for Fair Admissions v. University of North Carolina, No. 21-707, J.A. Vol. III, at JA1601

Expert Report of Mitchell J. Chang, Ph.D., Students for Fair Admissions v. University of North Carolina, No. 21-707, J.A. Vol. III, at JA1479

*Fischer, Mary J. & Douglas S. Massey, The Effects of Affirmative Action in Higher Education, 36 Soc. Sci. Res. 531 (2007).

*Fischer, Mary J., Does Campus Diversity Promote Friendship Diversity? A Look at Interracial Friendships in College, 89 Soc. Sci. Q. 631 (2008)

*Flores, Stella M. & Catherine L. Horn, Texas Top Ten Percent Plan: How It Works, What Are Its Limits, and Recommendations to Consider (2015), available at

Garces, Liliana M. & Uma M. Jayakumar, Dynamic Diversity: Toward a Contextual Understanding of Critical Mass, 43 Educ. Researcher 115 (2014)

*Gurin, Patricia, Biren (Ratnesh) A. Nagda & Ximena Zuñiga, Dialogue Across Difference: Practice, Theory, and Research on Intergroup Dialogue (2013)

Harper, Shaun R. & Sylvia Hurtado, Nine Themes in Campus Racial Climates and Implications for Institutional Transformation, New Directions for Student Services, Winter 2007, at 7

*Holzer, Harry J. & David Neumark, Affirmative Action: What Do We Know?, 25 J. Pol’y Analysis & Mgmt. 463 (2006)

Horn, Catherine L. & Stella M. Flores, When Policy Opportunity is Not Enough: The Complexity of College Access and Enrollment, 3 J. Applied Res. Children 1 (2012)

*Howell, Jessica S., Assessing the Impact of Eliminating Affirmative Action in Higher Education, 28 J. Labor Econ. 113 (2010)

Hurtado, Sylvia & Adriana Ruiz Alvarado, Discrimination and Bias, Underrepresentation, and Sense of Belonging on Campus (UCLA Higher Educ. Research Inst. 2015), available at

Hurtado, Sylvia & Adriana Ruiz, The Climate for Underrepresented Groups and Diversity on Campus (UCLA Higher Educ. Research Inst. 2012), available at

*Hurtado, Sylvia, Adriana Ruiz Alvarado & Chelsea Guillermo-Wann, Thinking About Race: The Salience of Racial Identity at Two and Four-Year Colleges and the Climate for Diversity, 86 J. Higher Educ. 127 (2015)

*Hurtado, Sylvia, The Next Generation of Diversity and Intergroup Relations Research, 61 J. Soc. Issues 595 (2005)

*Hussain, Maryam & James M. Jones, Discrimination, Diversity, and Sense of Belonging: Experiences of Students of Color, 14 J. Diversity Higher Educ. 63 (2021)

Jayakumar, Uma M., Can Higher Education Meet the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse and Global Society: Campus Diversity and Cross-Cultural Workforce Competencies, 78 Harv. Educ. Rev. 615 (2008)

Jayakumar, Uma M., The Shaping of Postcollege Colorblind Orientation Among Whites: Residential Segregation and Campus Diversity Experiences, 85 Harv. Educ. Rev. 609 (2015) (PDF will expire on August 11, 2023)

*Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, Men and Women of the Corporation (1977)

Kidder, William C. & Richard O. Lempert, The Mismatch Myth in U.S. Higher Education: A Synthesis of the Empirical Evidence at the Law School and Undergraduate Levels, in Affirmative Action and Racial Equity 105 (Uma M. Jayakumar & Liliana M. Garces eds. 2015)

Kidder, William C. & Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Still Hazy After All These Years: The Data and Theory Behind “Mismatch,” 92 Tex. L. Rev. 895 (2014)

*Krueger, Alan, et al., Race, Income and College in 25 Years: Evaluating Justice O’Connor’s Conjecture, 8 Am. L. & Econ. Rev. 282 (2006)

Levin, Shana, Colette van Laar & Jim Sidanius, The Effects of Ingroup and Outgroup Friendship on Ethnic Attitudes in College: A Longitudinal Study, 6 Group Processes & Intergroup Rel. 76 (2003)

*Logel, Christine R., et al., Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions, 47 Educ. Psychol. 42 (2012)

*Long, Mark C., Changes in the Returns to Education and College Quality, 29 Econ. Educ. Rev. 338 (2010)

Lopez, Gretchen E., Interethnic Contact, Curriculum, and Attitudes in the First Year of College, 60 J. Soc. Issues 75 (2004)

Luo, Jiali & David Jamieson-Drake, A Retrospective Assessment of the Educational Benefits of Interaction Across Racial Boundaries, 50 J.C. Student Dev. 67 (2009)

Mission Statement of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Students for Fair Admissions v. University of North Carolina, No. 21-707, J.A., Vol. III, at JA1371

*Nelson Laird, Thomas F., College Students’ Experiences with Diversity and Their Effects on Academic Self-Confidence, Social Agency, and Disposition Toward Critical Thinking, 46 Res. Higher Educ. 365 (2005)

Onwuachi-Willig, Angela, Emily Houh & Mary Campbell, Cracking the Egg: Which Came First—Stigma or Affirmative Action?, 96 Calif. L. Rev. 1299 (2008)

*Orfield, Gary, The Walls Around Opportunity (2022)

Paolini, Stefania, et al., Intergroup Contact Research in the 21st Century: Lessons Learned x and Forward Progress If We Remain Open, 77 J. Soc. Issues 11 (2021)

*Pettigrew, Thomas F. & Linda R. Tropp, A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory, 90 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 751 (2006)

Pettigrew, Thomas F. & Linda R. Tropp, How Does Intergroup Contact Reduce Prejudice? Meta-analytic Test of Three Mediators, 38 Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 922 (2008)

*Pitt, Richard & Josh Packard, Activating Diversity: The Impact of Student Race on Contributions to Course Discussions, 53 Soc. Q. 295 (2012)

*Plummer, Deborah L., Rosalie Torres Stone, Lauren Powell & Jeroan Allison, Patterns of Adult Cross-Racial Friendships: A Context for Understanding Contemporary Race Relations, 22 Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psych. 479 (2016)

*Reardon, Sean F., Rachel Baker, Matt Kasman, Daniel Klasik & Joseph Townsend, What Levels of Racial Diversity Can Be Achieved with Socioeconomic-Based Affirmative Action? Evidence from a Simulation Model, 37 J. Policy Analysis & Mgmt. 630 (2018)

*Saenz, Victor B., Hoi Ning Ngai & Sylvia Hurtado, Factors Influencing Positive Interactions Across Race for African American, Asian American, Latino, and White College Students, 48 Res. Higher Educ. 1 (2007)

Steele, Claude M., Whistling Vivaldi: And Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us (2010)

*Stotzer, Rebecca L. & Emily Hossellman, Hate Crimes on Campus: Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Campus Safety, 27 J. Interpersonal Violence 644 (2012)

*Thompson, Mischa & Denise Sekaquaptewa, When Being Different is Detrimental: Solo Status and the Performance of Women and Racial Minorities, 2 Analyses Soc. Issues & Pub. Pol’y 183 (2002)

Walton, Gregory M. & Steven J. Spencer, Latent Ability: Grades and Test Scores Systematically Underestimate the Intellectual Ability of Negatively Stereotyped Students, 20 Psychol. Sci. 1132 (2009)