Coronavirus, Education Research, and Education: Relevant AERA Journal Articles


Coronavirus Resources

The coronavirus pandemic has swept the United States and globally, upending the personal and professional lives of millions of people, including students, educators, and education researchers. At all levels of education, instructors, institution leaders, and policy makers are facing an unprecedented challenge, trying to ensure that high quality and equitable teaching and learning continues under rapidly changing and unpredictable conditions. 

AERA has developed a  resource page to give the education research community, educators, policy makers, and others open access to updates from the scholarly community and important content. Relevant AERA-published research is also available below.

AERA Journal Articles 


Educator Attrition and Mobility During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Kevin C. Bastian, Sarah C. Fuller
Educational Researcher, August 2023
Researchers found that educator attrition and mobility increased sharply between Fall 2020 and Fall 2022.

Post-Pandemic Onset Public School Enrollment and Mobility: Evidence From Virginia
Beth E. Schueler, Luke C. Miller
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, July 2023
Researchers found that pre-K–12 enrollment dropped by 4% between fall 2019 and the first post-pandemic fall of 2020.

State-Funded Pre-K and Children’s Language and Literacy Development: The Case of COVID-19
Elizabeth Burke Hadley, Siyu Liu, Eunsook Kim, Meaghan McKenna
Educational Researcher, June 2023
Researchers found that COVID-19 closures did not have significant negative impacts on pre-K children’s language and literacy skills at kindergarten entry.

“One of the Weakest Budget Players in the State”: State Funding of Higher Education at the Onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Denisa Gándara, Meredith S. Billings, Paul G. Rubin, Lindsey Hammond
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, May 2023
Researchers examined how policymakers in California and Texas made decisions about funding higher education at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, when policymakers faced an economic downturn

How Did Colleges Disburse Emergency Aid During COVID-19? An Implementation Analysis of the Higher Education Emergency Relief Fund
Elizabeth Bell, David Schwegman, Michael Hand, Michael DiDomenico
Educational Researcher, March 2023
Researchers found that disbursement policies varied along two dimensions: (1) whether they imposed burdens on students by requiring applications and proof of hardship and (2) whether they targeted needy students and varied the amount of aid according to need.

Contested Justice: Rethinking Educational Equity Through New York City’s COVID-19 School Reopening Debates
Alexandra Freidus, Erica O. Turner
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, November 2022
Researchers examined stakeholders’ overlapping and contested understandings of justice in public education, including claims related to how school resources are distributed, whom district policies recognize, and who is represented in policymaking.

Disruptiveness of COVID-19: Differences in Course Engagement, Self-Appraisal, and Learning
Teresa M. Ober, Ying Cheng, Matthew F. Carter, Cheng Liu
AERA Open, June 2023
Researchers found that although students were resilient in some respects, their self-appraisal and learning appear to have been negatively affected by pandemic circumstances.

The Impacts of Three Educational Technologies on Algebraic Understanding in the Context of COVID-19
Lauren E. Decker-Woodrow, Craig A. Mason, Ji-Eun Lee, Jenny Yun-Chen Chan, Adam Sales, Allison Liu, Shihfen Tu
AERA Open, April 2023
Researchers found that hierarchical linear modeling analyses of the final analytic sample showed significantly higher posttest scores for students who used From Here to There and DragonBox 12+ compared to the Active Control condition.

Educators Are Not Alright: Mental Health During COVID-19
Matthew J. Hirshberg, Richard J. Davidson, Simon B. Goldberg
Educational Researcher, January 2023
Researchers found that most participants reported clinically meaningful anxiety and depressive symptoms.

The Revealed Preferences for School Reopening: Evidence From Public-School Disenrollment
Thomas S. Dee, Elizabeth Huffaker, Cheryl Phillips, Eric Sagara
American Educational Research Journal, December 2022
Researchers found that offering remote-only instead of in-person instruction reduced enrollment by 1.1 percentage points.

Teachers’ Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Joseph M. Kush, Elena Badillo-Goicoechea, Rashelle J. Musci, Elizabeth A. Stuart
Educational Researcher, November 2022
Researchers found that teachers reported a greater prevalence of anxiety symptoms than did those in other professions and that remote teachers reported significantly higher levels of distress than did those teaching in person.

Fiscal Federalism and K–12 Education Funding: Policy Lessons from Two Educational Crises
Kenneth Shores, Matthew P. Steinberg
Educational Researcher, October 2022
Researchers found that the amount of federal aid during the Great Recession and COVID-19 pandemic was inadequate to meet policy goals.

State Higher Education Funding During COVID-19: Lessons From Prior Recessions and Implications for Equity
Kelly Rosinger, Robert Kelchen, Dominique J. Baker, Justin Ortagus, Mitchell D. Lingo
AERA Open, May 2022
Researchers found that how states approach higher education cuts has the potential to exacerbate existing inequities among racially minoritized and low-income students and historically underfunded institution types.

Policy Enactment During a Pandemic: How One School Responded to COVID-19 in Negotiation With a Nonprofit Partner
Lisa M. Dorner, Kelly Harris, Blake Willoughby
AERA Open, February 2022
Researchers examined how an urban elementary school and nonprofit organization worked to address challenges made visible by the COVID-19 pandemic.

“We Are Trying to Communicate the Best We Can”: Understanding Districts’ Communication on Twitter During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Esther Michela, Joshua M. Rosenberg, Royce Kimmons, Omiya Sultana, Macy A. Burchfield, Tayla Thomas
AERA Open, February 2022
Researchers found that districts worked to build community and share time-sensitive announcements in alignment with social media crisis communication recommendations.

Predictors of First-Grade Teachers’ Teaching-Related Time During COVID-19
Anna D. Johnson, Owen N. Schochet, Sherri Castle, Diane Horm, Deborah A. Phillips
AERA Open, January 2022
Researchers found that teachers’ prepandemic executive functioning and observed classroom instructional and organizational quality—features of successful teachers during normal times—predicted more during-pandemic time remote teaching, while teacher older age and having more high-needs students was associated with less remote teaching time.

From Yellow Peril to Model Minority and Back to Yellow Peril
Lin Wu, Nhu Nguyen
AERA Open, January 2022
Researchers used Asian critical race theory to examine how two Southeast Asian American students faced exclusion and erasure before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and how their Southeast Asian American teacher advocated for them at a public elementary school in the Pacific Northwest.

Power in a Pandemic: Teachers’ Unions and Their Responses to School Reopening
Bradley D. Marianno, Annie A. Hemphill, Ana Paula S. Loures-Elias, Libna Garcia, Deanna Cooper, Emily Coombes
AERA Open, January 2022
Researchers found that school districts where teachers’ unions exhibit strong second face power (but not first face power) were less likely to start the school year with in-person instruction, were less likely to ever open during fall semester with in-person instruction and spent fewer weeks in in-person learning.

Specifying Hybrid Models of Teachers’ Work During COVID-19
Lora Bartlett
Educational Researcher, January 2022

The Impact of a Messaging Intervention on Parents’ School Hesitancy During COVID-19
Morgan S. Polikoff, Daniel Silver, Marshall Garland, Anna Rosefsky Saavedra, Amie Rapaport, Michael Fienberg
Educational Researcher, January 2022

Addressing Our Nation’s Toxic School Infrastructure in the Wake of COVID-19
Erika M. Kitzmiller, Akira Drake Rodriguez
Educational Researcher, December 2021

Determinants of Ethnic Differences in School Modality Choices During the COVID-19 Crisis
Andrew M. Camp, Gema Zamarro
Educational Researcher, November 2021

Teachers’ Working Hours During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Dora Gicheva
Educational Researcher, November 2021

All States Close but Red Districts Reopen: The Politics of In-Person Schooling During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Matt Grossmann, Sarah Reckhow, Katharine O. Strunk, Meg Turner
Educational Researcher, September 2021

Patterns in the Pandemic Decline of Public School Enrollment
Thomas S. Dee, Mark Murphy
Educational Researcher, August 2021

Youth Critical Data Practices in the COVID-19 Multipandemic
Angela Calabrese Barton, Day Greenberg, Chandler Turner, Devon Riter, Melissa Perez, Tammy Tasker, Denise Jones, Leslie Rupert Herrenkohl, Elizabeth A. Davis
AERA Open, August 2021
Researchers found that youth not only aimed to reveal the dynamic and human aspects of and relationships with data as they engage with/in the world as people who matter but also offered alternative infrastructures for counter data production and aggregation toward justice in the here and now and desired possible futures.

The Effect of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Bilingual Singaporean Children’s Leisure Reading
Baoqi Sun, Chin Ee Loh, Beth Ann O’Brien, Rita Elaine Silver
AERA Open, July 2021
Researchers found that children preferred print reading over reading digitally both before and during the lockdown, and devices were underutilized for reading purposes.

Leading Schools and Districts in Times of Crisis
Jason A. Grissom, Lara Condon
Educational Researcher, June 2021

Achievement Gaps in the Wake of COVID-19
Drew H. Bailey, Greg J. Duncan, Richard J. Murnane, and Natalie Au Yeung
Educational Researcher, April 2021

Cross-National Variation in School Reopening Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Kate Steed Hoffman, Mariana Barragan Torres, Christine Min Wotipka
AERA Open, April 2021
Researchers found that cross-national diversity in policies is related to both internal and external country factors such as peer emulation mechanisms, income, and past pandemic experiences.

Factors Contributing to Teacher Burnout During COVID-19
Tim Pressley
Educational Researcher, March 2021

The Effects of Absenteeism on Academic and Social-Emotional Outcomes: Lessons for COVID-19
Lucrecia Santibañez, Cassandra M. Guarino
Educational Researcher, February 2021

Cross-National Variation in School Reopening Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Kate Steed Hoffman, Mariana Barragan Torres, Christine Min Wotipka
AERA Open, January-December 2021 

Higher Education in Times of COVID-19: University Students’ Basic Need Satisfaction, Self-Regulated Learning, and Well-Being
Julia Holzer, Marko Lüftenegger, Selma Korlat, Elisabeth PelikanKatariina Salmela-AroChristiane SpielBarbara Schober
AERA Open, January-December 2021

“Teachers Act Like We’re Robots”: TikTok as a Window Into Youth Experiences of Online Learning During COVID-19
Ioana Literat
AERA Open, January-December 2021

Generation Interrupted: Rethinking “Students with Interrupted Formal Education” (SIFE) in the Wake of a Pandemic
Chris K. Chang-Bacon
Educational Researcher, February 2021

COVID-19 and Teachers’ Somatic Burden, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion: Examining the Role of Principal Leadership and Workplace Buoyancy
Rebecca J. Collie
AERA Open, January-December 2021 

How Have FAFSA Submissions Differed During COVID-19?
Oded Gurantz, Christopher Wielga 
Educational Researcher, prepublished February 2021

Distance Learning and Parental Mental Health During COVID-19
Cassandra R. Davis,  Jevay Grooms, Alberto Ortega, Joaquin Alfredo-Angel Rubalcaba, Edward Vargas
Educational Researcher, January/February 2021 

Projecting the Potential Impact of COVID-19 School Closures on Academic Achievement
Megan Kuhfeld, James Soland, Beth Tarasawa, Angela Johnson, Erik Ruzek, Jing Liu
Educational Researcher, November 2020

Community Infrastructuring as Necessary Ingenuity in the COVID-19 Pandemic
Day Greenberg, Angela Calabrese Barton, Carmen Turner, Kelly Hardy, Akeya Roper, Candace Williams, Leslie Rupert Herrenkohl, Elizabeth A. Davis, Tammy Tasker
Educational Researcher, October 202o

Correcting COVID-19 Misconceptions Requires Caution
Greg Trevors, Melissa C. Duffy
Educational Researcher, October 2020

From the Field: Education Research During a Pandemic
David DeMatthews, David Knight, Pedro Reyes, Amber Benedict, Rebecca Callahan
Educational Researcher, August/September 2020 

Online/Distance/Digital Learning


Effects of a Science of Learning Course on College Students’ Learning With a Computer
Jeffrey A. Greene, Nikki G. Lobczowski, Rebekah Freed, Brian M. Cartiff, Cynthia Demetriou, A. T. Panter
American Educational Research Journal, July 2019

Updated Meta-Analysis of Learner Control Within Educational Technology
Abbey C. Karich, Matthew K. Burns, Kathrin E. Maki 
Review of Educational Research, September 2014

A Meta-Analysis of Three Types of Interaction Treatments in Distance Education
Robert M. Bernard, Philip C. Abrami, Eugene Borokhovski, C. Anne Wade, Rana M. Tamim, Michael A. Surkes, Edward Clement Bethel 
Review of Educational Research, September 2009

Learning Anytime, Anywhere: Advanced Distributed Learning and the Changing Face of Education
J. D. Fletcher, Sigmund Tobias, Robert A. Wisher
Educational Researcher, March 2007

Going the Distance With Online Education
Jorge Larreamendy-Joerns, Gaea Leinhardt
Review of Educational Research, Winter 2006

How Does Distance Education Compare With Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature
Robert M. Bernard, Philip C. Abrami Yiping Lou, Evgueni Borokhovski, Anne Wade, Lori Wozney, Peter Andrew Wallet, Manon Fiset Binru Huang
Review of Educational Research, Fall 2004

Small Group and Individual Learning with Technology: A Meta-Analysis
Yiping Lou, Philip C. Abrami, Sylvia d’Apollonia
Review of Educational Research, Fall 2001


A Look Inside Online Educational Settings in High School: Promise and Pitfalls for Improving Educational Opportunities and Outcomes
Carolyn J. Heinrich, Jennifer Darling-Aduana, Annalee Good, Huiping (Emily) Cheng
American Educational Research Journal, March 2019

Online Learning, Offline Outcomes: Online Course Taking and High School Student Performance
Cassandra M. D. Hart, Dan Berger, Brian Jacob, Susanna Loeb, Michael Hill 
AERA Open, February 2019

One-to-One Technology and Student Outcomes: Evidence From Mooresville’s Digital Conversion Initiative
Marie Hull, Katherine Duch
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, September 2018

Pathways to Educational Success Among Refugees: Connecting Locally and Globally Situated Resources
Sarah Dryden-Peterson, Negin Dahya, Elizabeth Adelman
American Educational Research Journal, December 2017

Impacts and Characteristics of Computer-Based Science Inquiry Learning Environments for Precollege Students
Dermot F. Donnelly, Marcia C. Linn, Sten Ludvigsen
Review of Educational Research, December 2014

The Effectiveness of Distance Education Across Virginia's Community Colleges: Evidence From Introductory College-Level Math and English Courses
Di Xu, Shanna Smith Jaggars
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, September 2011

What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study
Rana M. Tamim, Robert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Philip C. Abrami, Richard F. Schmid 
Review of Educational Research, March 2011


Reassessing Disparities in Online Learner Student Engagement in Higher Education
Justin Paulsen, Alexander C. McCormick
Educational Researcher, January 2020

Behavioral Engagement Shifts Among At-Risk High School Students Enrolled in Online Courses
Jennifer Darling-Aduana 
AERA Open, November 2019


An Efficacy Study of a Digital Core Curriculum for Grade 5 Mathematics
Nicole Shechtman, Jeremy Roschelle, Mingyu Feng, Corinne Singleton 
AERA Open, 2019

Online Mathematics Homework Increases Student Achievement
Jeremy Roschelle, Mingyu Feng, Robert F. Murphy, Craig A. Mason 
AERA Open, October 2016

Integration of Technology, Curriculum, and Professional Development for Advancing Middle School Mathematics: Three Large-Scale Studies
Jeremy Roschelle, Nicole Shechtman, Deborah Tatar, Stephen Hegedus, Bill Hopkins, Susan Empson, Jennifer Knudsen, Lawrence P. Gallagher
American Educational Research Journal,, 2010


Screens, Apps, and Digital Books for Young Children: The Promise of Multimedia
Adriana G. Bus, Susan B. Neuman, Kathleen Roskos 
AERA Open, 2020

Organizing Shared Digital Reading in Groups: Optimizing the Affordances of Text and Medium
Trude Hoel, Elise Seip
AERA Open, 2019

Computerized Electronic Features Direct Children’s Attention to Print in Single- and Dual-Language e-Books
W. Quin Yow, Sridhar Priyashri
AERA Open, 2019

How App Books’ Affordances Are Related to Young Children’s Reading Behaviors and Outcomes
Tanya Christ, X. Christine Wang, Ming Ming Chiu, Ekaterina Strekalova-Hughes 
AERA Open, 2019 

Educational and Fun? Parent Versus Preschooler Perceptions and Co-Use of Digital and Print Media
Gabrielle A. Strouse, Lisa A. Newland, Daniel J. Mourlam 
AERA Open, 2019

Digital or Print? A Comparison of Preschoolers’ Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Engagement From a Print Book and an e-Book
Stephanie M. Reich, Joanna C. Yau, Ying Xu, Tallin Muskat, Jessica Uvalle, Daniela Cannata
AERA Open, 2019

Using a Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) to Develop an Adaptive K–2 Literacy Intervention With Personalized Print Texts and App-Based Digital Activities
James S. Kim, Catherine A. Asher, Mary Burkhauser, Laura Mesite, Diana Leyva 
AERA Open, 2019  

Digital Versus Paper Reading Processes and Links to Comprehension for Middle School Students
Amanda P. Goodwin, Sun-Joo Cho, Dan Reynolds, Katherine Brady, Jorge Salas 
American Educational Research Journal, 2019 

Examining Adolescents’ Strategic Processing During Online Reading With a Question-Generating Task
Byeong-Young Cho, Lindsay Woodward, Dan Li, Wendy Barlow
American Educational Research Journal, 2017 

Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks: A Meta-Analysis
Zsofia K. Takacs, Elise K. Swart, Adriana G. Bus 
Review of Educational Research, 2015

A Review of the “Digital Turn” in the New Literacy Studies
Kathy Ann Mills
Review of Educational Research, 2010


Using Escribo Play Video Games to Improve Phonological Awareness, Early Reading, and Writing in Preschool
Americo N. Amorim, Lieny Jeon, Yolanda Abel, Eduardo F. Felisberto, Leopoldo N. F. Barbosa, Natália Martins Dias
Educational Researcher, 2020

A Digital Early Spelling Game: The Role of Auditory and Visual Support
Adi Elimelech, Dorit Aram
AERA Open, 2019

Digital Games, Design, and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Douglas B. Clark, Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Stephen S. Killingsworth 
Review of Educational Research, 2016

Equity in and Access to Online Learning/Technology 

Exploring Issues of Implementation, Equity, and Student Achievement With Educational Software in the DC Public Schools
June Ahn, Austin Beck, John Rice, Michelle Foster 
AERA Open, 2016

Improving Access to, Quality, and the Effectiveness of Digital Tutoring in K–12 Education
Patricia Burch, Annalee Good, Carolyn Heinrich 
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis2016

The State of Wiki Usage in U.S. K–12 Schools: Leveraging Web 2.0 Data Warehouses to Assess Quality and Equity in Online Learning Environments
Justin Reich, Richard Murnane, John Willett 
Educational Researcher, 2012

New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity in Access, Use, and Outcomes
Mark Warschauer, Tina Matuchniak
Review of Educational Research, 2010

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective
Yong Zhao, Kenneth A. Frank 
American Educational Research Journal, 2003

Integrating Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment, and Evaluation in a Technology-Supported Genetics Learning Environment
Daniel T. Hickey, Ann C. H. Kindfield, Paul Horwitz, Mary Ann T. Christie
American Educational Research Journal, 2003

High Access and Low Use of Technologies in High School Classrooms: Explaining an Apparent Paradox
Larry Cuban, Heather Kirkpatrick, Craig Peck
American Educational Research Journal, 2001 

Online Teaching/Professional Development

Teacher Coaching in a Simulated Environment
Julie Cohen, Vivian Wong, Anandita Krishnamachari, Rebekah Berlin 
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, February 2020

Investigating Technology-Enhanced Teacher Professional Development in Rural, High-Poverty Middle Schools
Margaret R. Blanchard, Catherine E. LePrevost, A. Dell Tolin, Kristie S. Gutierrez 
Educational Researcher, April 2016

Teachers Choosing Rich Tasks: The Moderating Impact of Technology on Student Learning, Enjoyment, and Preparation
Peter Aubusson, Paul Burke, Sandy Schuck, Matthew Kearney, Bart Frischknecht 
Educational Researcher, June 2014

The Lecture as a Transmedial Pedagogical Form: A Historical Analysis
Norm Friesen
Educational Researcher, April 2011

Professional Development in Integrating Technology Into Teaching and Learning: Knowns, Unknowns, and Ways to Pursue Better Questions and Answers
Kimberly A. Lawless, James W. Pellegrino
Review of Educational Research, December 2007

Teaching Courses Online: A Review of the Research
Mary K. Tallent-Runnels, Julie A. Thomas, William Y. Lan, Sandi Cooper, Terence C. Ahern, Shana M. Shaw, Xiaoming Liu
Review of Educational Research, Spring 2006

A Framework for Understanding Teaching With the Internet 
Raven McCrory Wallace
American Educational Research Journal, Summer 2004

Chapter 5: Technology’s Contribution to Teaching and Policy: Efficiency, Standardization, or Transformation?
Barbara Means, Jeremy Roschelle, William Penuel, Nora Sabelli, Geneva Haertel 
Review of Research in Education, January 2003

Tracing Teachers’ Use of Technology in a Laptop Computer School: The Interplay of Teacher Beliefs, Social Dynamics, and Institutional Culture
Mark Windschitl, Kurt Sahl
American Educational Research Journal, Spring 2002

Online Bullying

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cyber-Victimization and Educational Outcomes for Adolescents
Joseph H. Gardella, Benjamin W. Fisher, Abbie R. Teurbe-Tolon
Review of Educational Research, January 2017

Trauma-Informed Practices

Trauma-Informed Practices in Schools Across Two Decades: An Interdisciplinary Review of Research
M. Shelley Thomas, Shantel Crosby, Judi Vanderhaar
Review of Research in Education, May 2019

A Systematic Review of School-Based Social-Emotional Interventions for Refugee and War-Traumatized Youth
Amanda L. Sullivan, Gregory R. Simonson
Review of Educational Research, June 2016

Listening to the Speaking Wound: A Trauma Studies Perspective on Student Positioning in Schools
Elizabeth Dutro, Andrea C. Bien
American Educational Research Journal, February 2014

School Budget Cuts

Schooling During the Great Recession: Patterns of School Spending and Student Achievement Using Population Data
Kenneth Shores, Matthew P. Steinberg
AERA Open, September 2019