Annual <em>Brown</em> Lecture in Education Research

The 2019 Brown Lecture was given by Prudence L. Carter, dean and professor of the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley, and national expert on inequality in education. Learn more


“A Shade Less Offensive”: School Integration as Radical Inclusion in the Pursuit of Educational Equity

The historical record reveals that in the final opinion of the landmark school segregation case Cooper v. Aaron (1958), the U.S. Supreme Court justices intentionally used the term “desegregation” rather than “integration” to soften the ire of those opposed to the Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) decision; the justices thought the former term would be “a shade less offensive” than the latter.

In the 2019 Brown Lecture, eminent sociologist and education researcher Prudence Carter reverses this logic and discusses why educational practices of “radical inclusion” are “a shade less offensive” today than mere desegregation, in light of the persistence of educational disparities by race, ethnicity, and class. Professor Carter draws on her own research and a body of other social science evidence, to show why societies marred by social and economic divides continue to struggle with the realization of integration in schools and communities. In her commentary on the multiple dimensions of educational inequality, Carter highlights policies and evidence-based practices that have the potential to bring us closer to equity in schools and society.


Carter's talk was immediately followed by a moderated discussion with two policy experts and the audience.


  • Lauren Camera, Senior Education Writer, U.S. News & World Report


  • Ary Amerikaner, Vice President for P-12 Policy, Practice, and Research, The Education Trust
  • Wade J. Henderson, Former President and CEO, Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights (Retired)

The 2020 AERA Brown Lecture in Education Research will be given on October 22, 2020.