Trending Topic Research File: Value-Added Models
Trending Topic Research File: Value-Added Models
Value-Added Models

Trending Topic Research File

Over the past decade, the use of value‐added models (VAM) in teacher and administrator evaluation has grown nationally, while becoming one of education’s most controversial issues. Research evidence on the reliability and validity of VAM, and the consequences of using such indicators in educator evaluation, is still accumulating. In recent years, AERA’s journals have examined many aspects of VAM. 

The following compendium of open-access articles are inclusive of all substantive AERA journal content regarding VAM published since 2009. This page will be updated as new articles are published.  

AERA Journal Articles

Note: Articles are listed below in reverse chronological order of publication. Click here for the list by author’s last name.

Avoiding Bias when Estimating the Consistency and Stability of Value-Added School Effects
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, February 2018
Researchers show that fitting a joint value-added multilevel multivariate response model simultaneously to all subjects of cohorts directly gives unbiased estimates of the correlations of interest.
Author: George Leckie

Value-Added Modeling and Educational Accountability: Are we Answering the Real Questions?
Review of Educational Reseach, February 2017
Value-added estimates of teacher or school quality are increasingly used for both high- and low-stakes accountability purposes, making understanding of their limitations critical. A review of the recent value-added literature suggests three concerns with the state of the research. 
Author: Kimberly C. Everson

What does It Mean to Be Ranked a "High" or "Low" Value-Added Teacher? Observing Differences in Instructional Quality Across Districts
American Educational Research Journal, April 2016
Drawing on dataa from four urban districts, researchers found that teachers were categorized differently when compared within versus across school districts. 
Authors: David Blazar, Erika Litke, Johanna Barmore

AERA Statement on Use of Value-Added Models (VAM) for the Evaluation of Educators and Educator Preparation Programs
Educational Researcher, November 2015
In this official statement, the American Educational Research Association advises those using or considering use of value-added models about the scientific and technical limitations of these measures for evaluating educators and programs that prepare teachers.
Authors: AERA Council

The Use of Teacher Value-Added Measures in Schools: New Evidence, Unanswered Questions, and Future Prospects
Educational Researcher, March 2015
In the introduction to a special, VAM-focused issue of Educational Researcher, the special issue's editors pose questions and consider perspectives from labor economics, sociology of organizations, and psychology.
Authors: Douglas N. Harris, Carolyn D. Herrington

The Use of Teacher Value-Added Measures in Schools: New Evidence, Unanswered Questions, and Future Prospects
Educational Researcher, March 2015
The authors focus on four unappreciated problems in the design and implementation of evaluation systems that incorporate value-added measures.
Authors: Dale Ballou, Matthew G. Springer

Exploring the Potential of Value-Added Performance Measures to Affect the Quality of the Teacher Workforce
Educational Researcher, March 2015
This article explores various mechanisms through which the use of value-added might affect teacher quality, describing what researchers know empirically about the potential of each mechanism. 
Author: Dan D. Goldhaber

Make Room Value Added: Principals’ Human Capital Decisions and the Emergence of Teacher Observation Data
Educational Researcher, March 2015
The results of this study suggest that the data generated by high-quality observation systems have potential to inform principals' use of data for human capital decisions.
Authors: Ellen Goldring, Jason A. Grissom, Mollie Rubin, Christine M. Neumerski, Marisa Cannata, Timothy Drake, Patrick Schuermann

Teacher Perspectives on Evaluation Reform: Chicago’s REACH Students
Educational Researcher, March 2015
This study draws on 32 interviews from a random sample of teachers in the Chicago Public Schools and 2 years of survey data from more than 12,000 teachers per year to measure their perceptions of the clarity, practicality, and cost of the district's new teacher evaluation system, finding that teacher perceptions about evaluation are positively correlated with their perceptions of leadership and professional community.
Authors: Jennie Y. Jiang, Susan E. Sporte, Stuart Luppescu

Will VAMs Enforce the Walls of the Egg-Crate School?
Educational Researcher, March 2015
Drawing from research about the incentives and norms that influence teachers’ work within schools, this article illustrates the hazards of using VAMs to make job decisions and suggests how VAMs can be used productively as one source of information to promote improvement school-wide.
Author: Susan Moore Johnson

The Value in Value Added Depends on the Ecology
Educational Researcher, March 2015
This commentary emphasizes the need to continually revisit the topics treated in the March 2015 issue of Educational Researcher, noting that researchers have much to learn learn about how VAMs are actually used in a variety of settings.
Author: Henry Braun

Can Value Added Add Value to Teacher Evaluation?
Educational Researcher, March 2015
This commentary reflects on the five articles published in Educational Researcher's special issue on VAM in light of other work in this field, offering the author's own thoughts about whether and how VAMs may add value to teacher evaluation.
Author: Linda Darling-Hammond

Value Added: A Case Study in the Mismatch Between Education Research and Policy
Educational Researcher, March 2015
This commentary questions a simplistic notion of how policy makers might make effective use of research by sketching how the various levels of the education hierarchy might collaborate, noting that in combination with a wide range of related research and a coherent theory of action, research on teacher effectiveness indicators can increase the potential for educational improvement.
Author: Stephen Raudenbush

Practical Differences Among Aggregate-Level Conditional Status Metrics: From Median Student Growth Percentiles to Value-Added Models
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, February 2015
This article provides a framework for aggregate-level conditional status metrics (ACSMs), including value-added models.
Authors: Katherine E. Castellano, Andrew D. Ho

Instructional Alignment as a Measure of Teaching Quality
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, December 2014
This article is the first to explore the extent to which teachers’ instructional alignment is associated with contributions to student learning and effectiveness on composite evaluation measures.
Authors: Morgan S. Polikoff, Andrew C. Porter 

The Test Matters: The Relationship Between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment
Educational Researcher, August/September 2014
This study examined how the relationships between an observational protocol and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement.
Authors: Pam Grossman, Julia Jackson Cohen, Matthew Ronfeldt, Lindsay Brown

Is a Good Teacher a Good Teacher for All? Comparing Value-Added of Teachers With Their English Learners and Non-English Learners
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, June 2014
This article contributes to research about whether value-added measures are consistent across student subgroups by examining teachers’ value-added measures with English learners to the same teachers’ value-added measures with non-English learners.
Authors: Susanna Loeb, James Soland, Lindsay Fox 

The Random Assignment of Students Into Elementary Classrooms: Implications for Value-Added Analyses and Interpretations
American Educational Research Journal, April 2014
This study’s findings, that overwhelmingly students are not randomly assigned into classrooms, have implications for value-added analyses and the extent to which nonrandom assignment practices might impact teachers’ value-added scores.
Authors: Noelle A. Paufler, Audrey Amrein-Beardsley 

How Teacher Evaluation Methods Matter for Accountability: A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Effectiveness Ratings by Principals and Teacher Value-Added Measures
American Educational Research Journal, February 2014
Quantitative analysis of thirty schools finds that teacher value-added measures and informal principal evaluations are positively, but weakly, correlated.
Authors: Douglas N. Harris, William K. Ingle, Stacey A. Rutledge 

A Correlated Random Effects Model for Nonignorable Missing Data in Value-Added Assessment of Teacher Effects
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, December 2013
This article examines the concern that ignoring the presence of missing values can bias teachers’ value-added scores.
Authors:  Andrew T. Karl, Yan Yang, Sharon L. Lohr 

Who Would Stay, Who Would Be Dismissed? An Empirical Consideration of Value-Added Teacher Retention Policies
Educational Researcher, August/September 2013
Examining data from the state of Florida and policies that deny or revoke tenure from teachers who receive poor evaluation ratings based on quantitative measures of performance, the authors of this article show that specific policy design determines the extent of the potential for value-added to improve the overall quality of the teaching workforce.
Authors: Marcus A. Winters, Joshua M. Cowen 

Teacher Value-Added at the High-School Level: Different Models, Different Answers?
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, June 2013
The authors examine the relationship between teacher effect estimates derived from value-added model specifications employing different student learning assumptions.
Authors: Dan D. Goldhaber, Pete Goldschmidt, Fannie Tseng 

Including Students With Disabilities and English Learners in Measures of Educator Effectiveness
Educational Researcher, May 2013
The research examines value-added scores in the context of the challenges of accounting for students with disabilities and English learners.
Authors: Nathan D. Jones, Heather M. Buzick, Sultan Turkan 

What Are Error Rates for Classifying Teacher and School Performance Using Value-Added Models?
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, April 2013
This article addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data, finding results that suggest policymakers must carefully consider likely system error rates when using value-added estimates to make high-stakes decisions regarding educators.
Authors: Peter Z. Schochet, Hanley S. Chiang 

Multidimensional Assessment of Value Added by Teachers to Real-World Outcomes
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, April 2012
The authors of this paper develop a multiresponse approach to value-added assessment models that allows responses to be either continuous or categorical, leading to multidimensional estimates of value added by teachers and allowing the correlations among these dimensions to be explored.
Authors: Jennifer Broatch, Sharon L. Lohr 

Using Subject Test Scores Efficiently to Predict Teacher Value-Added
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, March 2012
This article shows how efficient use of information across subjects can improve the predictive ability of value-added models using data from North Carolina.
Authors: Lars Lefgren, David Sims 

A Validity Argument Approach to Evaluating Teacher Value-Added Scores
American Educational Research Journal, June 2011
This article uses case studies to illustrate problems in using value-added scores in pay-for-performance plans and also compares 24 middle school mathematics teachers’ value-added scores, finding that scores correlate not only with teachers’ mathematical knowledge and quality of instruction but also with the population of students they teach.
Authors: Heather C. Hill, Laura Kapitula, Kristin Umland 

Different Tests, Different Answers: The Stability of Teacher Value-Added Estimates Across Outcome Measures
American Educational Research Journal, February 2011
Using data from a large, urban school district, this study examines value-added estimates from three reading achievement tests and finds that test timing and measurement error contribute to the instability of value-added estimates across tests.
Author: John P. Papay 

By Author

Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey -

Ballou, Dale -

Barmore, Johanna -


Broatch, Jennifer -

Blazar, David -

Brown, Lindsay -

Buzick, Heather M. -

Cannata, Marisa -

Castellano, Katherine E. -

Chiang, Hanley S. -

Cohen, Julia Jackson -

Cowen, Joshua A. -


Drake, Timothy -

Everson, Kimberlee C. -

Fox, Lindsay -

Goldhaber, Dan D. -

Goldring, Ellen -

Goldschmidt, Pete -

Grissom, Jason A. -

Grossman, Pam -

Harris, Douglas N. -

Herrington, Carolyn D. -

Hill, Heather C. -

Ho, Andrew D. -

Ingle, William Kyle -

Jiang, Jennie. Y -

Johnson, Susan

Jones, Nathan D. -

Kapitula, Laura -

Karl, Andrew T. -

Leckie, George -

Lefgren, Lars -

Litke, Erica -
-What does It Mean to Be Ranked a "High" or "Low" Value-Added Teacher? Observing Differences in Instructional Quality Across Districts

Loeb, Susanna -

Lohr, Sharon L. -

Luppescu, Stuart -

Neumerski, Christine M. - christine.m.neumerski@vanderbilt

Papay, John -

Paufler, Noelle A. -

Polikoff, Morgan S. -

Porter, Andrew C. -

Raudenbush, Stephen W. -

Ronfeldt, Matthew -

Rubin, Mollie - ADD

Rutledge, Stacy A.

Schuermann, Patrick -

Schochet, Peter Z. -

Sims, David -

Soland, James -

Sporte, Susan E.

Springer, Matthew G. -

Turkan, Sultan -

Tseng, Fannie -

Umland, Kristin -

Winters, Marcus A. -

Yang, Yan -

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